Canadian Confederation

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Welcome to the Library and Archives Canada Canadian Confederation website, which tells the story of how Canada came to be, from the original four provinces in 1867 to the present. Historical essays showcase documents, articles and photographs of the people, places and events that have shaped our country. The site features material from the collection of Library and Archives Canada, including a number of rare items that would otherwise be difficult to access.

During the years before Confederation, there was much happening in the colonies that would eventually unite to become the Dominion of Canada. In this section you will find a selection of essays on pre-Confederation themes: the evolution of Upper Canada, Lower Canada and the Atlantic Colonies; the effect of the American Civil War on Canada's formation; and the three famous conferences - at Charlottetown, Québec and London - that led to Canadian Confederation in 1867.

About Canadian Confederation

The earliest version of the Canadian Confederation website, which focused on the influence of the American Civil War, no longer exists in its original form. However, much of it is included on this new site, particularly in the Towards Confederation section.

Library and Archives Canada appreciates the contributions of the following:

  • Amy Fisher, Nicolas Savard, Tod Mohamed (writing and research)
  • Research and Information Services Branch, Library and Archives Canada
  • Provincial Resource Library, Arts and Culture Centre, St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador (formerly Newfoundland)
  • Public Archives and Records Office of Prince Edward Island

We gratefully acknowledge the contribution of the Department of Canadian Heritage's Canadian Culture Online Program (CCOP), whose financial assistance made this work possible.

Part of this digital collection was originally sponsored by Bell Canada through the Stentor Alliance.

Towards Confederation

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