First World War: information package

First World War personnel files

These information sheets will help to interpret the documents found in the service files of the Canadian Expeditionary Force.

  • The War Diaries

    Service files indicate where enlisted personnel were posted in England, but do not record the locations of military postings or battles in France or Belgium. The files provide the name or number of the unit in which the individual served. With that information, locations and battles can be determined by searching the relevant War Diaries.

    Canadian Expeditionary Force units were required to maintain a daily account of their “Actions in the Field.” These logs were called War Diaries and they are a historical record of a unit’s administration, operations and activities during the First World War. The records have been scanned and can be viewed online. Find out how to consult the War Diaries at War Diaries of the First World War

  • Military abbreviations, terms and meanings

    Service personnel military files from the First World War contain many abbreviations and terms, the most common of which are explained here. A more complete list is available at Military abbreviations used in Service Files.

    Military abbreviations, terms and meanings
    Abbreviation Term Meaning
    Acting or a/ Acting Rank higher rank held on a temporary basis – also known as a brevet
    rank for officers
    Adj Adjutant administrative assistant to a commanding officer (below
    divisional level)
    adm admitted soldiers entering hospital for medical treatment
    ARD Alberta Regimental Depot facility in England used to assemble men and to store and
    administer equipment and materials
    att’d attached to be made part of a specific unit on a temporary basis
    auth authorized, authority designation of the individual or organization permitting the action noted
    AWL or
    absent without leave away from a unit without permission; an offence under military
    Batt’n or Bn Battalion unit of approximately 1,000 men commanded by a lieutenant-
    BCRD British Columbia
    Regimental Depot
    facility in England used to assemble men and to store and
    administer equipment and materials
    BEF British Expeditionary Force army of more than 3,000,000 men established by the
    Government of Britain for service overseas
    Bde Brigade unit of approximately 4,000 men commanded by a brigadier-
    Bramshott Bramshott location of a Canadian military training base in Hampshire,
    Bty Battery artillery unit commanded by a major and composed of four or
    six guns or mortars
    Boulogne Boulogne location of Canadian General Hospital (No.3) in France
    CADC Canadian Army Dental
    corps of military dentists and other personnel providing dental
    services to soldiers
    CAMC Canadian Army Medical
    corps of military doctors, nursing sisters and other personnel
    providing medical treatment to soldiers
    Canterbury Canterbury location of Canadian Military Hospital (No.2) in Kent, England
    CASC Canadian Army Service
    branch of the military responsible for supplying troops in the
    Cav Cavalry soldiers who fought on horseback
    CBD Canadian Base Details small units charged with maintaining and improving camp areas
    CCAC Canadian Casualty
    Assembly Centre
    centre where wounded were assessed for either further
    treatment or return to duty
    CCCC Canadian Corps Composite
    unit of men unfit for active duty at the front and attached to
    Corps Headquarters for employment
    CCD Canadian Convalescent
    facility where soldiers could recover from wounds and rebuild
    their strength
    CCRC Canadian Corps
    Reinforcement Centre
    centre in France where troops were held before being sent to
    reinforce existing units
    CCS Casualty Clearing Station first medical unit (after the Aid Post) where wounded soldiers
    were evacuated from the front lines
    CDD Canadian Discharge Depot centre in Canada where soldiers returning from war were
    released from service
    CDAC Canadian Divisional
    Ammunition Column
    railhead where divisional ammunition was stored before being
    shipped to the front
    CE Canadian Engineers corps of men who built bridges, railway depots, camps, bases
    and other military installations
    CEF Canadian Expeditionary Force force of more than 600,000 men established by the Government of Canada for service overseas
    CERD Canadian Engineer
    Reinforcement Depot
    centre from which reinforcements were allocated to existing
    engineer units
    CFA Canadian Field Ambulance unit responsible for evacuating the wounded from the front
    lines to medical centres
    CFC Canadian Forestry Corps units designated to cut down and process trees to provide
    wood and lumber
    CGA Canadian Garrison Artillery organization responsible for using large-calibre guns in direct or
    indirect support of infantry
    CGH Canadian General Hospital permanent hospital where extensive treatment was given to
    the wounded
    CGR Canadian Garrison Regiment unit of 13 battalions formed in April 1918 to perform garrison duty in Canada’s 13 military districts
    CL Casualty List list of soldiers wounded, killed, missing or taken prisoner by the enemy
    CLH Canadian Light Horse cavalry unit, originally intended as a scouting force
    CMGC Canadian Machine Gun Corps soldiers with machine guns responsible for supporting or defending against infantry attack
    CMR Canadian Mounted Rifles soldiers on horseback originally and later on foot, used largely as infantry
    C of I Court of Inquiry group of officers convened to investigate specific questions or events
    Com Command unit under the command of one officer or non-commissioned officer
    CO Commanding Officer any officer in command of a specific unit (usually battalion level and up)
    Conv Convalescent a soldier recovering from wounds or illness
    CORD Central Ontario Regimental Depot facility in England used to assemble men and to store and administer equipment and materials
    Coy Company unit of approximately 200 men, divided into four groups
    CRCR Canadian Reserve Cavalry Regiment cavalry reserve unit based in England
    CRT Canadian Railway Troops men recruited and organized to operate railways in rear areas
    CSM Company Sergeant-Major senior non-commissioned officer in a company
    DAC Divisional Ammunition Company organization responsible for supplying ammunition to a division
    DCM Distinguished Conduct Medal medal for bravery awarded to other ranks (non-officers)
    dis discharged released from military service, or from a hospital
    Div Division unit of approximately 12,000 men commanded by a major- general
    DO Daily Order (of a unit) administration orders issued to mark personnel changes of a unit (transfers, hospitalizations, etc.)
    D of W died of wounds official cause of death
    Dvr Driver designation or rank of a soldier who drives vehicles
    East Sandling East Sandling location of Canadian military training base in Kent, England
    emb embarked went aboard ship for departure overseas; Canada to Britain or Canada to France
    EORD Eastern Ontario Regimental Depot facility in England used to assemble men and to store and administer equipment and materials
    Frac fractured medical term for broken bone
    GC Badge Good Conduct Badge award for good conduct during service
    Gen General commanding officer at division or corps level
    GHQ General Headquarters command centre from which corps or army commanders direct the war
    Gnr Gunner lowest rank in the Royal Canadian Artillery (equivalent to a private)
    GSW Gunshot Wound wound caused by a bullet
    GOC General Officer Commanding highest ranking general, usually at the corps level
    HMS His Majesty’s Ship vessel under the control of the Royal Navy
    HMT His Majesty’s Troopship designated ship carrying troops between Canada and England and England and France
    Hosp Hospital designated location where soldiers receive medical treatment
    How Howitzer an artillery weapon (various calibres) capable of firing shells in a low or high arc
    HQ Headquarters command centre for a military unit in the field (company level and above)
    inv “wd” Invalided wounded a soldier transferred away from the front as a result of wounds received in action
    KIA Killed in action designation of how a soldier died
    LG (Lon Gaz) London Gazette official British government publication of decorations, honours and promotions
    LMB Light Mortar Battery front line unit of light mortars used for direct fire support
    LSH Lord Strathcona’s Horse (Royal Canadians) cavalry unit first established for South African War
    M&D/ Medals & Dec Medals and Decorations list of theatre medals or decorations received for military service, as well as special citations
    MC Military Cross award given to officers for specific act(s) of bravery, or for meritorious service
    MD Military District (or Depot) designated military administrative areas in Canada (13 in number)
    MIA Missing in action casualty whose whereabouts and status (alive, dead or captured) after an action are unknown
    MID Mentioned-in-Despatches commendation by commanding officer for outstanding or meritorious service
    Mil Military organization responsible for defending a country or for the conduct of a war
    Miss Missing location of an individual is unknown
    MM Military Medal medal for bravery awarded to other ranks (non-officers)
    MRD Manitoba Regimental Depot facility behind front used to assemble men and to store and administer equipment and materials
    NCO non-commissioned officer non-commissioned officer
    NSRD Nova Scotia Regimental Depot facility behind front used to assemble men and to store and administer equipment and materials
    NYD not yet determined a medical condition not yet diagnosed
    OMFC Overseas Military Forces of Canada Canadian cabinet ministry that conducted Canadian military affairs in London, England
    Orpington Orpington location of military hospital in Kent, England
    O.S. Overseas all areas outside the territorial waters of North America
    P&S Plaque and Scroll (Memorial) given to the families of soldiers who died during service
    Pnr Pioneer member of a pioneer battalion, used for specialized engineering work in rear areas
    PPCLI Princess Patricia’s Canadian Light Infantry Canadian regiment of experienced soldiers privately established by Hamilton
    Pte Private lowest rank of enlisted soldier
    Pt. II O Part II Orders administrative orders issued by a unit (see DO)
    PUO pyrexia of unknown origin fever of an undetermined cause
    QRD Quebec Regimental Depot facility in England used to assemble men and to store and administer equipment and materials
    RAF Royal Air Force British air force (Royal Flying Corps (RFC) before April 1918)
    RCD Royal Canadian Dragoons heavy cavalry unit
    RCHA Royal Canadian Horse Artillery specific regiment of artillery inside the Royal Canadian Artillery
    RCR Royal Canadian Regiment one of the oldest Canadian infantry regiments, founded in 1883
    rem remained stayed in an area, or stayed on duty
    Res Reserve force of men remaining behind the lines to reinforce the front lines where needed
    RFB Reported from Base unit base report about a soldier
    RFC Royal Flying Corps see RAF
    RSM Regimental Sergeant-Major senior non-commissioned officer in a regiment
    RTC Returned to Corps a soldier returning to duty
    Salisbury Salisbury location of first Canadian military training base in Southwest England in 1915
    Seaford Seaford location of Canadian military training base in Sussex, England
    SEF Siberian Expeditionary Force small international force sent to Russia in 1918 to help anti- communist forces
    Shorncliffe Shorncliffe location of Canadian military training base in Kent, England
    SOS Struck off strength (of a unit) when a soldier ceases to be a member of a unit because of transfer, injury or death
    Spr Sapper lowest enlisted rank in Canadian Engineers (see CE)
    SS Steamship transport vessel used to carry troops and equipment
    Staty Stationary (Hospital) large movable hospital of between 400 and 1,000 beds
    SW Shrapnel (Shell) Wound type of wound received from shrapnel or shell fragment
    TMB Trench Mortar Battery small- to medium-calibre mortars used in infantry support and to shell enemy trenches
    TOS Taken on strength (of a unit) entry of a soldier to a unit
    Tpr Trooper lowest rank in a cavalry unit
    trans transferred to be sent from one unit or location to another
    unk unknown location of a soldier is not known
    VDG venereal disease, gonorrhea a sexually transmitted disease
    VDS venereal disease, syphilis a sexually transmitted disease
    Wilton Wilton location of Canadian military training base in Wiltshire, England (on Salisbury
    w, (w) wounded Injury caused by enemy action
  • How to read a record of service or a casualty form from the First World War

    The entries on these documents are taken from unit Part II Orders. The orders are the administrative directives concerning the movement of personnel into and out of a unit for various reasons, such as leave, hospitalization and transfer to and from another unit, as well as changes in financial or ration allowances, or punishment awarded for service offences.

    Each unit of the Canadian Expeditionary Force issued these orders on a regular basis, and they are collected in our holdings and arranged by unit and date in Record Group (RG) 150, Series 1. However, each entry for an individual mentioned in the orders is placed separately on that individual’s personnel record, with a reference to the order number of the original entry (see remarks column on the image).

    • Report date (first column): Date on which a specific report about the individual is received by a higher authority.
    • Report from whom received (second column): Information about who is making the report.
    • Record of promotions, reductions, transfers, casualties, etc. during active service (third column): The authority is quoted in each case, providing information about the individual that has been noted in the unit administrative orders.

    Note: The terms “taken on strength” (TOS) or “struck off strength” (SOS) refer to the movement of personnel into and out of a unit. They are usually entered in pairs in an individual’s personnel records, recording the departure from one unit and the entry into another, and the dates when such movements took place.

    • Place (fourth column): The place in which the noted action occurred.
    • Date (fifth column): Date on which the noted action took place. It should not be confused with the previous date, which refers to when the report was made (first column).
    • Remarks (sixth column): These are taken from official documents and refer to the Part Il Order that noted the action.


  • How to read a medal card from the First World War

    The sample document is taken from the service file of Private George Albert Broome, who died of wounds on 7 November 1917. He received the British War Medal and the Victory Medal, but was not eligible for the 1914–1915 Star. One can determine these awards from his medal card in the following ways:

    • In the upper right corner there is a capital letter B, with a check mark through it. The “B” denotes that Mr. Broome was awarded the British War Medal, and the check mark indicates that it was sent out.
    • In the same corner is a capital letter V, also with a check mark. The “V” denotes the award of the Victory Medal, and the check mark indicates that it was sent out.

    Note: If there is only one letter on the card, only one of the medals has been awarded. This is most likely the British War Medal.

    • Eligibility for the 1914–1915 Star is determined by Theatre of War and Date of Service. If Theatre of War reads France, and Date of Service shows a date before 31 December 1915, the soldier is eligible for the Star. In this case, we can see that Mr. Broome was transferred to France on 21 January 1916, and is therefore not eligible for the Star.

    Note: If Theatre of War reads England, and the Date of Service is before 11 November 1918, the soldier is only eligible for the British War Medal and only a capital letter B will be written in the upper right corner. Soldiers who never left Canada are not eligible for any service awards, and consequently there is no medal card in their service files.

  • Criteria for the award of First World War Theatre medals

    • 1914–1915 Star: Granted to all officers and other ranks who actively served on the establishment of a unit in a Theatre of War, for example France or Belgium, between midnight 22 November 1914 and midnight 31 December 1915.
    • British War Medal: Granted to all officers and other ranks, who either entered a Theatre of War on duty, or left places of residence and rendered approved service overseas, on or before midnight 11 November 1918. According to regulation, all veterans of the Canadian Expeditionary Force who proceeded to the United Kingdom were eligible for the award. In addition, the medal was awarded to all naval personnel who performed 28 days of mobilized service anywhere. It was also awarded to those who proceeded to the British West Indies and to Siberia.
    • Victory Medal: Granted to all officers and other ranks who actually served on the establishment of a unit in a Theatre of War on or before midnight 11 November 1918, and to those officers and other ranks of the Canadian Expeditionary Force who proceeded to Siberia.

    Note: Decorations such as a Mentioned-in-Despatches, Military Medal or Military Cross, Distinguished Service Order, etc. are not indicated on the medal card, but are entered on the individual’s Record of Service and Casualty Form, along with the number (issue) of the London Gazette in which the award was promulgated.

  • How to read a Memorial Cross card from the First World War

    The first line provides the name of the soldier, his regimental number, rank and unit.

    Medals & Decs
    This abbreviation (also written as M&D) refers to the medals and decorations that were sent to the next of kin of the deceased soldier.
    P. & S.
    This abbreviation refers to the memorial Plaque and Scroll. It was issued to the next of kin as a commemoration of the soldier’s sacrifice in the service of the King.
    Mem. Cross
    This abbreviation (also written as the Cross of Sacrifice) refers to the Memorial Cross. It was issued to the mother and/or widow of the deceased soldier.

    The other dates entered on the card refer to when the plaque and scroll were despatched to the next of kin by the government, and when medals and decorations (M) were awarded. The number C37475 signifies the number of the Medal Roll on which the awards are registered in the soldier’s name.


  • Next of kin

    The recipient is deemed the blood next of kin of the deceased at the time the memorials are distributed. The order of the next of kin is defined as follows.

    1. widow
    2. eldest surviving son
    3. eldest surviving daughter
    4. father
    5. mother
    6. eldest surviving brother
    7. eldest surviving aunt on mother’s side
  • Pay and allowances

    In 1914, the original daily rates of pay and allowances for members of the Canadian Expeditionary Force were as follows
    Rank Rate
    Colonel or Lieutenant-Colonel $5.00
    Major $4.00
    Captain $3.00
    Lieutenant (qualified or provisional) $2.00
    Paymaster, Quartermaster (QM) $3.00
    Adjutant, in addition to pay of rank $0.50
    Brigade, Regimental or Staff Sergeant-Major (SM) $1.85
    Brigade, Regimental or Staff SM (if Warrant Officer) $2.00
    Brigade, Regimental or Staff SM (if QM Sergeant (QMS)) $1.60
    Orderly Room Sergeant $1.50
    Pay Sergeant $1.60
    Squadron, Battery, Troop or Company SM $1.60
    Squadron, Battery, Troop or Company QMS $1.50
    Farrier Sergeant $1.50
    Sergeant $1.35
    Corporal, Bombardier or 2nd Corporal $1.10
    Private, Gunner, Sapper, Driver, Batman, etc. $1.00
    Field allowance rates were authorized according to the following scale:
    Rank Rate
    Colonel $1.50
    Lieutenant-Colonel $1.25
    Major $1.00
    Captain $0.75
    Lieutenant $0.60
    Warrant Officer $0.30
    Staff Sergeant $0.20
    Sergeant $0.15
    Rank and file (Corporal, Private, etc.) $0.10

    For example, a Private in the Canadian Expeditionary Force would be paid $1.00 per day plus an additional 10 cents per day for being in the field (on the battlefront).

    Permission was given to officers, non-commissioned officers and other ranks to assign a portion of their pay, not exceeding four-fifths of the monthly amount, to their relatives. The amount was instructed to be in dollars only (no cents), and the maximum amount assigned by a Private was $25.00.

  • Divisions of the Canadian Expeditionary Force (November 1918)

    Blank cells = not applicable

    Divisions of the Canadian Expeditionary Force (November 1918)
    1st Division 2nd Division 3rd Division 4th Division
    • 1st Brigade Canadian Field Artillery
      • 1st Field Battery
      • 3rd Field Battery
      • 4th Field Battery
      • 2nd Howitzer Battery
    • 2nd Brigade Canadian Field Artillery
      • 5th Field Battery
      • 6th Field Battery
      • 7th Field Battery
      • 48th Howitzer  Battery
    • 1st Divisional Ammunition Column
    • 1st Canadian Infantry Brigade
      • 1st Canadian Infantry Battalion
      • 2nd Canadian Infantry Battalion
      • 3rd Canadian Infantry Battalion
      • 4th Canadian Infantry Battalion
      • 1st Trench Mortar Battery
    • 2nd Canadian Infantry Brigade
      • 5th Canadian Infantry Battalion
      • 7th Canadian Infantry Battalion
      • 8th Canadian Infantry Battalion
      • 10th Canadian Infantry Battalion
      • 2nd Trench Mortar Battery
    • 3rd Canadian Infantry Brigade
      • 13th Canadian Infantry Battalion
      • 14th Canadian Infantry Battalion
      • 15th Canadian Infantry Battalion
      • 16th Canadian Infantry Battalion
      • 3rd Trench Mortar Battery
    • 1st Brigade Canadian Engineers
      • 1st Battalion Canadian Engineers
      • 2nd Battalion Canadian Engineers
      • 3rd Battalion Canadian Engineers
    • 5th Brigade Canadian Field Artillery
      • 17th Field Battery
      • 18th Field Battery
      • 20th Field Battery
      • 23rd Howitzer Battery
    • 6th Brigade Canadian Field Artillery
      • 15th Field Battery
      • 16th Field Battery
      • 25th Field Battery
      • 22nd Howitzer Battery
    • 2nd Divisional Ammunition Column
    • 4th Canadian Infantry Brigade
      • 18th Canadian Infantry Battalion
      • 19th Canadian Infantry Battalion
      • 20th Canadian Infantry Battalion
      • 21st Canadian Infantry Battalion
      • 4th Trench Mortar Battery
    • 5th Canadian Infantry Brigade
      • 22nd Canadian Infantry Battalion
      • 23rd Canadian Infantry Battalion
      • 25th Canadian Infantry Battalion
      • 26th Canadian Infantry Battalion
      • 5th Trench Mortar Battery
    • 6th Canadian Infantry Brigade
      • 27th Canadian Infantry Battalion
      • 28th Canadian Infantry Battalion
      • 29th Canadian Infantry Battalion
      • 31st Canadian Infantry Battalion
      • 6th Trench Mortar Battery
    • 2nd Brigade Canadian Engineers
      • 4th Battalion Canadian Engineers
      • 5th Battalion Canadian Engineers
      • 6th Battalion Canadian Engineers
    • 9th Brigade Canadian Field Artillery
      • 31st Field Battery
      • 33rd Field Battery
      • 45th Field Battery
      • 36th Howitzer Battery
    • 10th Brigade Canadian Field Artillery
      • 5th Field Battery
      • 6th Field Battery
      • 7th Field Battery
      • 48th Howitzer Battery
    • 3rd Divisional Ammunition Column
    • 7th Canadian Infantry Brigade
      • The Royal Canadian Regiment
      • Princess Patricia’s Canadian Light Infantry
      • 42nd Battalion
      • 49th Battalion
      • 7th Trench Mortar Battery
    • 8th Canadian Infantry Brigade
      • 1st Canadian Mounted Rifles
      • 2nd Canadian Mounted Rifles
      • 4th Canadian Mounted Rifles
      • 5th Canadian Mounted Rifles
      • 8th Trench Mortar Battery
    • 9th Canadian Infantry Brigade
      • 43rd Canadian Infantry Battalion
      • 52nd Canadian Infantry Battalion
      • 58th Canadian Infantry Battalion
      • 116th Canadian Infantry Battalion
      • 9th Trench Mortar Battery
    • 3rd Brigade Canadian Engineers
      • 7th Battalion Canadian Engineers
      • 8th Battalion Canadian Engineers
      • 9th Battalion Canadian Engineers
    • 3rd Brigade Canadian Field Artillery
      • 10th Field Battery
      • 11th Field Battery
      • 12th Field Battery
      • 9th Howitzer Battery
    • 4th Brigade Canadian Field Artillery
      • 13th Field Battery
      • 19th Field Battery
      • 27th Field Battery
      • 21st Howitzer Battery
    • 4th Divisional Ammunition Column
    • 10th Canadian Infantry Brigade
      • 44th Canadian Infantry Battalion
      • 46th Canadian Infantry Battalion
      • 47th Canadian Infantry Battalion
      • 50th Canadian Infantry Battalion
      • 10th Trench Mortar Battery
    • 11th Canadian Infantry Brigade
      • 54th Canadian Infantry Battalion
      • 75th Canadian Infantry Battalion
      • 87th Canadian Infantry Battalion
      • 102nd Canadian Infantry Battalion
      • 11th Trench Mortar Battery
    • 12th Canadian Infantry Brigade
      • 38th Canadian Infantry Battalion
      • 72nd Canadian Infantry Battalion
      • 78th Canadian Infantry Battalion
      • 85th Canadian Infantry Battalion
      • 12th Trench Mortar Battery
    • 4th Brigade Canadian Engineers
      • 10th Battalion Canadian Engineers
      • 11th Battalion Canadian Engineers
      • 12th Battalion Canadian Engineers
  • Corps troops of the Canadian Expeditionary Force (November 1918)

    • Cavalry
      • Royal Canadian Dragoons
      • Lord Strathcona's Horse (Royal Canadians)
      • Fort Garry Horse
      • Canadian Light Horse
      • R.N.W.M.P. Squadron
    • Artillery
      • RCHA Brigade
        • 8th Army Brigade Canadian Field Artillery
          • 24th Field Battery
          • 30th Field Battery
          • 32nd Field Battery
          • 43rd Howitzer Battery
          • 8th Army Brigade Ammunition Column
          • AE Anti-Aircraft Battery
      • Corps Heavy Artillery
        • 1st Brigade, Canadian Garrison Artillery
          • 1st Siege Battery
          • 3rd Siege Battery
          • 7th Siege Battery
          • 9th Siege Battery
        • 2nd Brigade, Canadian Garrison Artillery
          • 1st Heavy Battery
          • 2nd Heavy Battery
          • 2nd Siege Battery
          • 4th Siege Battery
          • 5th Siege Battery
          • 6th Siege Battery
        • 3rd Brigade, Canadian Garrison Artillery
          • 8th Siege Battery
          • 10th Siege Battery
          • 11th Siege Battery
          • 12th Siege Battery
        • 5th Divisional Artillery
          • 13th Brigade, Canadian Field Artillery
          • 52nd Field Battery
          • 53rd Field Battery
          • 55th Field Battery
          • 51st Howitzer Battery
          • 14th Brigade, Canadian Field Artillery
          • 60th Field Battery
          • 61st Field Battery
          • 66th Field Battery 58th Howitzer Battery
          • 58th Howitzer Battery
          • 5th Divisional Ammunition Column
    • Engineers
      • 1st Army Troops Company
        • 2nd Army Troops Company
        • 3rd Army Troops Company
      • 4th Army Troops Company
        • 5th Army Troops Company
        • Anti-Aircraft Searchlight Company
        • 3rd Tunnelling Company
        • Corps Survey Section
        • 1st Tramways Company
        • 2nd Tramways Company
    • Machine Gun Corps
      • 1st Motor Machine Gun Brigade
      • 2nd Motor Machine Gun Brigade
    • Army Service Corps
      • Corps Troops Motor Transport Company
        • 1st Divisional Motor Transport Company
        • 2nd Divisional Motor Transport Company
        • 3rd Divisional Motor Transport Company
        • 4th Divisional Motor Transport Company
        • Engineers Motor Transport Company
        • Motor Machine Gun Motor Transport Company
        • 5th Divisional Artillery Motor Transport Company
      • 5th Divisional Train Detachment
    • Medical Corps
      • No. 1 Canadian General Hospital
      • No. 2 Canadian General Hospital
      • No. 3 Canadian General Hospital
      • No. 6 Canadian General Hospital
      • No. 7 Canadian General Hospital
      • No. 8 Canadian General Hospital
      • No. 2 Stationary Hospital
      • No. 3 Stationary Hospital
      • No. 7 Stationary Hospital
      • No. 8 Stationary Hospital
      • No. 9 Stationary Hospital
      • No. 10 Stationary Hospital
      • Forestry Corps Hospitals (6)
      • No. 1 Casualty Clearing Station
      • No. 2 Casualty Clearing Station
      • No. 3 Casualty Clearing Station
      • No. 4 Casualty Clearing Station
      • No. 7 (Cavalry) Field Ambulance
      • No. 14 Field Ambulance
    • Canadian Railway Troops
      • Canadian Overseas Railway Construction Corps
      • 1st Battalion, Canadian Railway Troops
      • 2nd Battalion, Canadian Railway Troops
      • 3rd Battalion, Canadian Railway Troops
      • 4th Battalion, Canadian Railway Troops
      • 5th Battalion, Canadian Railway Troops
      • 6th Battalion, Canadian Railway Troops
      • 7th Battalion, Canadian Railway Troops
      • 8th Battalion, Canadian Railway Troops
      • 9th Battalion, Canadian Railway Troops
      • 10th Battalion, Canadian Railway Troops
      • 11th Battalion, Canadian Railway Troops
      • 12th Battalion, Canadian Railway Troops
      • 13th Battalion, Canadian Railway Troops
    • Labour
      • 1st Infantry Works Company
      • 2nd Infantry Works Company
      • 3rd Infantry Works Company
      • 4th Infantry Works Company
      • 5th Area Employment Company
      • 6th Area Employment Company
      • 7th Area Employment Company
      • 8th Area Employment Company
      • 9th Area Employment Company
    • Miscellaneous
      • Canadian Cyclist Battalion
      • Corps Signal Company
      • Corps Reinforcement Camp
      • Corps Schools
      • Forestry Companies (58)
  • Battles and other engagements in which Canadian forces participated

    From the Official History of the Canadian Army in the First World War: Canadian Expeditionary Force, 1914– 1919 by Colonel G.W.L. Nicholson, pgs. 534 to 536.

    France and Flanders: 1915–1918

    Dates shown are those during which Canadian troops were present and do not necessarily cover the full period of the battle. An asterisk has been placed before the names of battles and actions in which the only Canadian forces present were detached units or sub-units, e.g., Batteries, Tunnelling Companies, etc. This list uses the official names contained in the Report of the Battles Nomenclature Committee, 1921.

    Blank cells = not applicable

    Trench Warfare 1915
    Battle/engagement Date
    *Battle of Neuve Chapelle 10 March
    Action of St. Eloi 14-15 March
    The Battle of Ypres, 1915


    Gravenstafel Ridge (The Gas Attack) 22-23 April
    St. Julien 24 April-4 May
    Frezenberg Ridge 8-13 May
    Bellewaarde Ridge 24-25 May
    *Battle of Aubers Ridge 9 May
    Battle of Festubert 17-25 May
    Second Action of Givenchy, 1915 15-16 June
    The Battle of Loos 25 September-8 October
    *Action of Bois Grenier 25 September
    *Actions of the Hohenzollern Redoubt 13-19 October
    Trench warfare 1916
    Battle/engagement Date
    Actions of St. Eloi Craters 27 March-16 April
    Battle of Mount Sorrel 2-13 June
    The Allied offensive 1916
    Battle/engagement Date
    The Battles of the Somme, 1916
    *Albert, 1916
    (Capture of Montauban, Mametz,Fricourt, Contalmaison and La Boisselle)
    1-13 July
    Bazentin Ridge 14-17 July
    *Attack at Fromelles 19 July
    Attacks on High Wood 20-25 July
    Pozieres Ridge (Fighting for Mouquet Farm) 1-3 September
    *Guillemont 3-6 September
    *Ginchy 9 September
    Flers-Courcelette 15-22 September
    Thiepval Ridge 26-29 September
    Le Transloy Ridges (Capture of Eaucourt l'abbaye) 1-18 October
    Ancre Heights (Capture of Regina Trench) 1 October-11 November
    The Ancre, 1916 (Capture of Beaumont Hamel) 13-18 November
    The Advance to the Hindenburg Line 1917
    Battle/engagement Date
    German Retreat to the Hindenburg Line 24-29 March

    Blank cells = not applicable

    The Allied offensive 1917
    The Battle of Arras, 1917 9-14 April
    Vimy Ridge 9-14 April
    *First Scarpe, 1917 23-24 April
    *Second Scarpe, 1917 23 April
    Attack on la Coulotte 28-29 April
    Arleux 3-4 May
    Third Scarpe, 1917 (Capture of Fresnoy)  
    Affairs South of the Souchez River 3-25 June
    Capture of Avion 26-29 June
    Battle of Hill 70 15-25 August
    *The Battle of Messines, 1917 (Capture of
    7-14 June
    The Battles of Ypres, 1917 31 July-2 August
    *Pilckem Ridge  
    *Langemarck, 1917 16-18 August
    *Menin Road Ridge 20-25 September
    *Polygon Wood 26 September-3 October
    *Broodseinde 4 October
    *Poelcappelle 9 October
    *First Passchendaele 12 October
    Second Passchendaele 26 October-10 November
    Battle of Cambrai, 1917  
    The Tank Attack 20-21 November
    *Capture of Bourlon Wood 23-28 November
    The German counter-attacks 30 November-3 December

    Blank cells = not applicable

    The German offensives 1918
    Battle/engagement Date
    The First Battles of the Somme, 1918
    St. Quentin
    21-23 March
    *Actions at the Somme Crossings 24-25 March
    *First Bapaume 24-25 March
    *Rosieres 26-27 March
    *First Arras, 1918 28 March
    *Avre 4 April
    *Capture of Hamel 4 July
    The Battles of the Lys  
    *Estaires (First Defence of Givenchy, 1918)  9-11 April
    *Messines, 1918 (Loss of Hill 63) 10-11 April
    *Hazebrouck 12-15 April
    *Bailleul (Defence of Neuve Eglise) 13-15 April
    *First Kemmel Ridge 17-19 April
    *Action of La Becque 28 June

    Blank cells = not applicable

    The Advance to Victory 1918
    Battle/engagement Date
    The Battle of Amiens 8-11 August
    Actions round Damery 15-17 August
    The Second Battles of the Somme, 1918  
    *Albert, 1918 21-23 August
    *Second Bapaume 31 August-3 September
    The Second Battles of Arras, 1918  
    Scarpe, 1918 (Capture of Monchy-le-preux) 26-30 August
    Drocourt-Queant Canal 2-3 September
    The Battles of the Hindenburg Line  
    *Havrincourt 12 September
    *Epehy 18 September 27
    Canal Du Nord (Capture of Bourlon Wood) September-1 October
    St. Quentin Canal 29 September-2 October
    Beaurevoir Line 3-5 October
    Cambrai, 1918 (Capture of Cambrai) 8-9 October
    *Battle of Ypres, 1918 28 September-2 October
    Pursuit to the Selle 9-12 October
    *Battle of Courtrai 14-19 October
    *Battle of the Selle 17-25 October
    Battle of Valenciennes (Capture of Mont Houy) 1-2 November
    Battle of the Sambre 4 November
    Passage of the Grande Honnelle 5-7 November
    Capture of Mons 11 November
    Other theatres of war
    Battle/engagement Date
    Macedonia 1915–1917
    Dardanelles 1915–1916
    Egypt and Palestine 1915–1916, 1918
    North West Persia and Caspian 1918–1919
    Murman 1918–1919
    Archangel 1918–1919
    Siberia 1918–1919
  • Bibliography

    Military, First World War, general

    Canadian Expeditionary Force 1914-1919, by Colonel G. W. L. Nicholson, Queen's Printer, Ottawa, 1962.

    "Overseas" The Lineages and Insignia of the Canadian Expeditionary Force, 1914-1919, by Charles H. Stewart, Little and Stewart, Toronto, 1970.

    Silent Battle: Canadian Prisoners of War in Germany, 1914-1919, by Desmond Morton, Lester Publishing, Toronto, 1992.

    Official History of the Canadian Forces in the Great War 1914-1919, in two volumes, by Colonel A. Fortescue Duguid, King's Printer, Ottawa, 1938.

    Report of the Ministry: Overseas Military Forces of Canada 1918, H. M. Stationery Office, London, 1918.

    Amid the Guns Below; The Story of the Canadian Corps, 1914-1919, by Larry Worthington, McClelland and Stewart, Toronto, 1965.

    To Seize the Victory; The Canadian Corps in World War I, by John Swettenham, Ryerson Press, Toronto, 1965.

    When Your Number's Up: The Canadian Soldier in the First World War, by Desmond Morton, Random House of Canada, Toronto, 1993.

    Marching to Armageddon: Canadians and the Great War, by Desmond Morton and J. L. Granatstein, Lester & Orpen Dennys, Toronto, 1989.

    The Road Past Vimy; The Canadian Corps, 1914-1918, by D. J. Goodspeed, Macmillan, Toronto, 1969.

    Ghosts Have Warm Hands: A Memoir of the Great War, 1916-1919, by Will R. Bird, CEF Books, Ottawa, 2002.

    Military, First World War, unit histories

    Dragoon; the Centennial History of the Royal Canadian Dragoons, 1883-1983, by Brereton Greenhaus, Guild of the Royal Canadian Dragoons, Belleville, Ontario, 1983.

    Lord Strathcona's Horse (Royal Canadians); a Record of Achievement, by J. M. McAvity, Bridgens Limited, Toronto, 1947.

    The Gate; a History of the Fort Garry Horse, by G. T. Service and J. K. Marteinson, Commercial Printers, Calgary, 1971.

    The Royal Canadian Regiment, 1883-1933, Volume I, by R.C. Fetherstonhaugh, Gazette Printing Company, Montreal, 1936.

    100 Years: the Royal Canadian Regiment 1883-1983, by Ken Bell and C. P. Stacey, Collier-MacMillan Canada, Don Mills, Ontario, 1983.

    Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry, by Ralph Hodder-Williams, G. R. Stevens and R. B. Mainprize, Hodder, London, 1923.

    The Patricias: The Proud History of a Fighting Regiment, by David J. Bercuson, Stoddart Publishing Company, Toronto, 2001.

    The Fighting Newfoundlanders: a History of the Royal Newfoundland Regiment, by G. W. L. Nicholson, Government of Newfoundland, Ottawa, 1964.

    The History of the 2nd Canadian Battalion (Eastern Ontario Regiment) Canadian Expeditionary Force in the Great War, 1914-1918, by W. W. Murray, Historical Committee, 2nd Canadian Battalion, Ottawa, 1947.

    The 2nd Canadian Mounted Rifles [British Columbia Horse] in France and Flanders, by G. Chalmers Johnston, Vernon, BC (no date).

    Records of the Fourth Canadian Infantry Battalion in the Great War 1914-1918, by W. L. Gibson, Bibliothèque nationale du Québec, Montreal, 2001.

    The 4th Canadian Mounted Rifles, 1914-1919, by Stewart Gordon Bennett, Murray Printing, Toronto, 1926.

    Gallant Canadians: The Story of the Tenth Canadian Infantry Battalion, 1914-1919, by Daniel G. Dancocks, Calgary Highlanders Regimental Funds Foundation, Markham, Ontario,1990.

    The 13th Battalion Royal Highlanders of Canada, 1914-1919, by Robert Collier Fetherstonhaugh, 1925.

    The Royal Montreal Regiment, 14th Battalion, C.E.F., 1914-1925, by Robert Collier Fetherstonhaugh, Gazette Printing Company, Montreal, 1927.

    The History of the 16th Battalion (the Canadian Scottish) Canadian Expeditionary Force in the Great War, 1914-1919, by Hugh MacIntyre Urquhart, MacMillan of Canada, Toronto, 1932.

    The History of the Twentieth Canadian Battalion (Central Ontario Regiment) Canadian Expeditionary Force in the Great War, 1914-1918, by David James Corrigall, Stone & Cox Limited, Toronto, 1935.

    Le 22e Bataillon (canadien-français), 1914-1919: Étude socio-militaire, by Jean-Pierre Gagnon, Les Presses de l'Université Laval, Québec, 1986.

    Histoire du 22e Bataillon canadien-français, by Joseph-Henri Chaballe, L. Lamontagne et Charles Marie Boissoneault, Chantecler, Montreal, 1964.

    The 24th Battalion, C.E.F., Victoria Rifles of Canada, by R. C. Fetherstonhaugh, Gazette Printing Company, Montreal, 1930.

    The Twenty-fifth Battalion, Canadian Expeditionary Force: Nova Scotia's Famous Regiment in World War One, by F. B. MacDonald and John J. Gardiner , Nova Scotia, 1983.

    New Brunswick's Fighting 26th: A Draft History of the 26th New Brunswick Battalion, C.E.F., 1914-1919, by S. Douglas MacGowan and Harry M. Heckbert, 26th Battalion Overseas Association, Saint John, 1991.

    From the Forks to Flanders Fields; The Story of the 27th City of Winnipeg Battalion, 1914-1918, by Bruce Tascona, Winnipeg, 1995.

    The History of the 28th Northwest Battalion, C.E.F. (October 1914-June 1919), by Major D. G. Calder, Regina, 1961.

    Vancouver's 29th; A Chronicle of the 29th in Flanders Fields, by Henry Randolph Notman Clyne, Tobin's Tigers Association, Vancouver, 1964.

    History of the Thirty-first Battalion C.E.F.: from its organization November, 1914 to its demobilization, June 1919, by A. A. Peebles, Calgary, 1938.

    The 42nd Battalion, C.E.F.: Royal Highlanders of Canada, in the Great War, by Lieutenant-Colonel C. Beresford Topp, Gazette Printing Company, Montreal, 1931.

    Six Thousand Canadian Men: Being the History of the 44th Battalion Canadian Infantry 1914-1919, by Edgar Stanford Russenholt, De Montfort Press, Winnipeg, 1932.

    The Suicide Battalion, by James L. McWilliams and R. J. Steel, Hurtig, Edmonton, 1978 [46th Battalion].

    The 50th Battalion in No Man's Land, by Victor W. Wheeler, Historical Resources Foundation, Calgary, 1980.

    From Thunder Bay through Ypres with the Fighting 52nd, by William Chisholm Millar, 1918.

    Cinquante-Quatre: Being a Short History of the 54th Canadian Infantry Battalion, by John Beswick Bailey, 1919.

    History of the 72nd Canadian Infantry Battalion, Seaforth Highlanders of Canada, by Bernard McEvoy and A.H. Finlay, Cowan & Brookhouse, Vancouver, 1920.

    From B.C. to Baisieux: Being the Narrative History of the 102nd Canadian Infantry Battalion, by L. McLeod Gould, T. R. Cusack, Victoria, 1919.

    Military, First World War, corps histories

    Royal Canadian Engineers

    The History of the Corps of Royal Canadian Engineers, by A. J. Kerry and W. A. McDill, Ottawa, 1962.

    Royal Canadian Corps of Signals

    History of the Royal Canadian Corps of Signals, 1903-1961, by J. S. Moir, Corps Committee of the Royal Canadian Corps of Signals, Ottawa, 1962.

    Royal Canadian Army Service Corps

    Wait for the Wagon; the Story of the Royal Canadian Army Service Corps, by Arnold Warren, McClelland and Stewart, Toronto, 1961.

    Royal Canadian Army Medical Corps

    The Medical Services (Official History of the Canadian Forces in the Great War, 1914-1918), by Sir Andrew MacPhail, King's Printer, Ottawa, 1925.

    Seventy Years of Service; a History of the Royal Canadian Army Medical Corps, by G. W. L. Nicholson, Borealis Press, Ottawa, 1977.

    Canada's Nursing Sisters, by G. W. L. Nicholson, Canadian War Museum, Toronto, 1975.

    Royal Canadian Army Chaplain Corps

    Padres in No Man's Land (Canadian Chaplains and the Great War), by Duff Willis Crerar, McGill-Queen's University Press, Montreal, 1995.

    Royal Canadian Artillery

    Canada's Guns; an Illustrated History of Artillery, by Leslie Barnes, Canadian War Museum, Ottawa, 1979.

    The Gunners of Canada; the History of the Royal Regiment of Canadian Artillery, by G. W. L. Nicholson, McClelland and Stewart, Toronto, 1967-72.

    RCHA - Right of the Line; An Anecdotal History of the Royal Canadian Horse Artillery from 1871, by George Duncan Mitchell, with B. A. Reid and W. Simcock, RCHA History Committee, Ottawa, 1986.

    Canadian Machine Gun Corps

    The Canadian "Emma Gees," a History of the Canadian Machine Gun Corps, by C.S. Grafton, Canadian Machine Gun Corps Association, London, Ontario, 1938.

    The Emma Gees, by Herbert W. McBride, Bobbs-Merrill Company, Indianapolis, Indiana, 1918.

    Canadian Intelligence Corps

    The Intelligence Service within the Canadian Corps 1914-1918, by Major J. E. Hahn, Macmillan, Toronto, 1930.

    Canadian Forestry Corps

    The Canadian Forestry Corps; its Inception, Development and Achievements, by Rev. C. W. Bird, His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1919.

    Military, First World War, miscellaneous units

    Saga of the Cyclists in the Great War 1914-1918, by W. D. Ellis, Canadian Corps Cyclist Battalion Association, Toronto, 1965.

    A Legacy of Courage; "Calgary's Own" 137th Overseas Battalion, C.E.F., by Fred Bagley and Harvey Daniel Duncan, Plug Street Books, Calgary, 1993.

    The Canadian Y.M.C.A. in the Great War 1914-1918, by Charles W. Bishop, National Council of Young Men's Christian Associations of Canada, Toronto, 1924.

    History of No. 1 General Hospital, Canadian Expeditionary Force, by Kenneth Cameron, The Tribune Press, Sackville, NB, 1938.

    Extracts from the War Diary and Official Records of the Second Canadian Divisional Ammunition Column, by H. D. Clark, J. & A. McMillan, Saint John, N.B., 1921.

    A History of the Canadian Knights of Columbus Catholic Army Huts, by Rev. I. J. E. Daniel and Rev. D. A. Casey, 1922.

    No. 3 Canadian General Hospital (McGill), 1914-1919, by Robert Collier Fetherstonhaugh, Gazette Printing Company, Montreal, 1928.

    6th Battery, 2nd Brigade, C.F.A., by L. M. Firth, C. Georgi, Bonn, Germany, 1919.

    Historical Records of No. 8 Canadian Field Ambulance: Canada, England, France, Belgium, 1915-1919, by J. N. Gunn, Ryerson, Toronto, 1920.

    The 127th Battalion, C.E.F.: 2nd Battalion, Canadian Railway Troops, by H. M. Jackson, Montreal, 1957.

    Battery Action!: the Story of the 43rd Battery, C.F.A., by Hugh R. Kay, George Magee and F. A. MacLennan, Warwick & Rutter, Toronto, 1920

    The History of the Fifty-fifth Battery, C.F.A., by D. C. MacArthur, H. S. Longhurst, Hamilton, 1919.

    Gun fire: a Historical Narrative of the 4th Bde. C.F.A. in the Great War (1914-1918), by J. A. MacDonald, Greenway Press, Toronto, 1929.

    The War and the 7th Bn. C.R.T, by J. R. O'Gorman, Mortimer, Ottawa, 1920. [Canadian Railway Troops]

    Soldiers of Christ: Canadian Catholic Chaplains, 1914-1918, by J. R. O'Gorman, Toronto, 1936.

    Canada's Black Battalion, No. 2 Construction 1916-1920, by Calvin W. Ruck, Society for Protection and Preservation of Black Culture in Nova Scotia, Halifax, 1986.

    The Diary of the 13th Battery, Canadian Field Artillery, by C. Sifton, Canadian Newspaper Company, London, Ont., 1919.

    The 60th C.F.A. Battery Book, 1916-1919, Canada Newspaper Company in London, 1919.

    From the Rideau to the Rhine and Back: the 6th Field Company and Battalion Canadian Engineers in the Great War, by K. Weatherbe, Hunter Rose, Toronto, 1928.

    With the 4th Canadian Div'l Signal Coy. C.E. on Active Service [microform], filmed by the Canadian Institute for Historical Microreproductions, Ottawa, 1996.

    Military, First World War, battles

    Ypres (1915)

    Gas!: the Battle for Ypres, 1915, by James L. McWilliams and R. James Steel, Vanwell Publishing, St. Catharines, Ontario, 1985.

    Beyond Courage: the Canadians at the Second Battle of Ypres, by George Cassar, Oberon, Ottawa, 1985.

    Welcome to Flanders Fields: the First Canadian Battle of the Great War: Ypres, 1915, by Daniel G. Dancocks, McClelland and Stewart, Toronto, 1989.

    The Somme (1916)

    The Somme, by Anthony H. Farrar-Hockley, Batsford, London, England, 1964.

    Vimy (1917)

    Vimy, by Pierre Berton, McClelland and Stewart, Toronto, 1986.

    Canada and the Battle of Vimy Ridge 9-12 April 1917, by Brereton Greenhaus, Department of National Defence, Ottawa, 1992.

    Passchendaele (1917)

    They Called It Passchendaele: the Story of the Third Battle of Ypres and of the Men Who Fought in It, by Lyn Macdonald, M. Joseph, London, 1978.

    Legacy of Valour: The Canadians at Passchendaele, by Daniel G. Dancocks, Hurtig Publishers, Edmonton, 1986.

    Amiens (1918)

    The Battle of Amiens, 8-11 August 1918 (Canadian Battle Series No. 15), by Brereton Greenhaus, Balmuir Books, Toronto, 1995.

    Canada's Hundred Days; with the Canadian Corps from Amiens to Mons. Aug 8-Nov 11, 1918, by John Frederick Bligh Livesay, Thomas Allen, Toronto, 1919.

    Spearhead to Victory: Canada and the Great War, by Daniel G. Dancocks, Hurtig Publishers, Edmonton, 1987.

    Russian Intervention (1918-1919)

    Canadians in Russia, 1918-1919, by Roy MacLaren, Macmillan, Toronto, 1976.

    CSEF: Canada's Soldiers in Siberia, 1918-1919, by John Ernest Skuce, Access to History Publications, Ottawa, 1990.

    Allied Intervention in Russia, 1918-19, and the Part Canada Played, by John Swettenham, Ryerson, Toronto, 1967.

    Military, First World War, medals and citations

    The Military Cross (Awarded to the Canadian Expeditionary Force 1915-1921), by David K. Riddle and Donald G. Mitchell, Kirkby-Marlton Press, Winnipeg, 1991.

    The Distinguished Conduct Medal to the Canadian Expeditionary Force, 1914-1920, by David K. Riddle and Donald G. Mitchell, Kirkby-Marlton Press, Winnipeg, 1991.

    The Distinguished Service Order to the Canadian Expeditionary Force and Canadians in the Royal Naval Air Service, Royal Flying Corps and Royal Air Force, 1915-1920, by David K. Riddle and Donald G. Mitchell, Kirkby-Marlton Press, Winnipeg, 1991.

    The Military Medal; Canadian Recipients, 1916-1922, by Harry and Cindy Abbink, Alison Publishing Company, Calgary, 1987.

    First World War online resources

    Library and Archives Canada

    Canada and the First World War (flickr)

    Courts-martial of the First World War

    From Colony to Country: A Reader's Guide to Canadian Military History (archived)

    Mary Riter Hamilton: Traces of War

    Mary Riter Hamilton: Traces of War (flickr)

    Military Heritage

    Oral Histories of the First World War: Veterans 1914-1918 (archived)

    Personnel Records of the First World War

    Prime Ministers' Fonds (ArchiviaNet Research Tool) (archived)

    The Battle of Passchendaele: Resources at Library and Archives Canada

    War Diaries of the First World War

    Other sources

    Canadian Military History Gateway

    Canadian Virtual War Memorial

    Canadian War Museum

    CBC Archives: The First World War – Canada Remembers

    Commonwealth War Graves Commission

    Indigenous Soldiers – Foreign Battlefields

    Military History Research Centre

    National Film Board: Front Lines

    Peace and War in the 20th Century

    The Canadian Letters and Images Project

    The Memory Project

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