New Brunswick joined Confederation on July 1, 1867.
The first inhabitants of New Brunswick were Mi'kmaq, whose dwellings extended from Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island to the southern coast of the Gaspé Peninsula.
The French established the first European settlement in 1604, calling it Acadia. Victimized by the armed conflicts between the British and French, and left to fend for themselves, most of the Acadians were deported in 1755 to the American colonies and they settled over a wide area, particularly in Quebec and Louisiana.
Some returned to Acadia, only to find that their land had been given to settlers from New England. Henceforth, this area was called Nova Scotia.
After the American Revolutionary War, nearly 14,000 Loyalists settled in the valleys of the St. John and St. Croix Rivers.
In 1784, New Brunswick became a separate colony from Nova Scotia.
Researchers interested in ancestors who lived in New Brunswick use the main types of genealogical sources. There are a number of resources on Acadian and Loyalist ancestors, especially birth, marriage and death records and land registers.
Civil Registration (Birth, Death and Marriage Records)
In New Brunswick, birth records from 1888 to 1913, marriage and death records from 1888 to 1958, and some incomplete church and civil records prior to 1888 are in the custody of the Provincial Archives of New Brunswick. Some databases are available on their Web site.
Birth records after 1913, and marriage and death records after 1958 are still in the custody of:
Service New Brunswick
P.O. Box 1998
For official certificates of births, marriages and deaths from 1888 to the present, contact the Vital Statistics Office.
Indexes to land petitions, 1785-1918, and to land grants, 1784-1997, are available on the Web site of the Provincial Archives of New Brunswick.
The current series of land petitions covers the period 1832-1966. A card index for the years 1832-1866 is available at the Provincial Archives. A microfilm index for the years 1867-1966 is available through inter-institutional loan.
Check under County Guides for information on land records in the individual counties.
Records of subsequent transactions are in the custody of the Land Registry offices.
Many libraries hold reference books, local histories, family histories and other books on genealogy. Library and Archives Canada allows you to browse lists of Canadian library Web sites and catalogues by province (Archived).
The Provincial Archives holds both probate files, with the will or letter of administration and supporting documentation, and probate books (registers), which are indexed. An ongoing microfilming program will make them available through inter-institutional loan. Check under County Guides for the extent of the records and microfilm reel numbers where applicable.