Appendices - LAC Forum with University Partners: Exploring Decolonization on the Road to Reconciliation

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Appendix I: Agenda

Time

Activity

8:00AM

Greeting participants

8:30AM

Opening Prayer and Welcome Remarks

  • Sheldon McGregor, Algonquin Anishinabe, Kitigan Zibi Anishinabeg First Nation
  • Guy Berthiaume, Librarian and Archivist of Canada, LAC

8:50AM

Reconciliation at Library and Archives Canada – Normand Charbonneau, Assistant Deputy Minister and Chief Operating Officer, LAC

9:10AM

Keynote – Camille Callison, Indigenous Services Librarian, University of Manitoba
Honouring Our Path Toward Reconciliation: Addressing the Information Needs of Indigenous Peoples and Building Relationships

10:00AM

Health Break

10:30AM

Decolonization of Research/Knowledge Institutions: Panel presentations and discussion

Moderator: Donna Bourne-Tyson, University Librarian, Dalhousie University and President of the Canadian Association of Research Libraries (CARL)

Panelists:

  • Brenda Macdougall, Associate Professor, Holder of the Chair in Métis Research, University of Ottawa
    Ancestral Traces in the Documentary Record: Tracing Indigenous People through Colonial Sources
  • Andrea Bear Nicholas, Professor Emeritus, St. Thomas University
    Practical and Ethical considerations for Federal and Provincial Repositories holding Indigenous Materials
  • Erica Hernández-Read, Archivist, Access and Digital Initiatives, University of Northern
    BCHeeding the Call to Action: Reconciliation through Institutional Engagement and Professional Action
  • Melissa Adams, Librarian and Archivist, Union of B.C. Indian Chiefs, BC
    Decolonizing, Not Recolonizing

12:15PM

Networking lunch on site

1:30PM

Table Discussions on decolonization as a means of reconciliation – Introduction by Johanna Smith, Director General, LAC

2:50PM

Closing Remarks – Guy Berthiaume, Librarian and Archivist of Canada, LAC

Appendix II: Description of Table Discussion Themes

Theme 1: Decolonizing space

All public spaces, both virtual and physical spaces, are shaped by power relationships that influence our behaviours. Decolonizing space allows for greater inclusivity for students, staff, and visitors to memory and research institutions.

  1. How visible are Indigenous Peoples and their cultures at your institution?
    • Are there any programs related to library or archival resources or services?
    • What other services/programs could be added?
  2. Have you identified any initiatives or processes that could lead to the decolonization of space at your institutions?
    • If so, please explain the drivers for change, and the expected results.
    • If not, are there any spaces (physical or virtual) that may be considered in the future?
  3. What are the challenges your institution has faced/overcome when attempting to decolonize physical or virtual space?

Theme 2: Decolonizing promotion and exhibitions

Institutions exhibit and promote artifacts and collections through their particular institutional lens. Decolonizing exhibitions and the promotion of programs and services allows for greater collaboration and inclusivity for students, staff, and visitors.

  1. What are the perceived difficulties in decolonizing methods for selecting, promoting, and exhibiting artifacts and collections at your institution?
    • How does this affect current work occurring at your institution?
  2. How should institutions approach collaboration with Indigenous communities?
    • Should collaboration be focused on local Indigenous communities, or broadened to include as many communities as possible?
  3. What are the perceived challenges in decolonizing access programs and services?
  4. How can we use social media as part of the decolonization process?
  5. How can decolonization methodologies be integrated into the visioning and design of future exhibitions and programming?

Theme 3: Decolonizing cataloguing and description of resources

Decolonizing cataloguing and description allows for greater collaboration and inclusivity for students, staff, and visitors.

  1. Standards for both archival and bibliographic description do not currently take into account how Indigenous Peoples identify themselves, their material culture and their information resources. To what extent does your institution currently engage with Indigenous communities to integrate Indigenous Knowledge to improve description and enhance accessibility?
  2. What challenges has your institution faced in building relationships with Indigenous communities?
  3. Should collaboration be focused on local Indigenous communities, or broadened to include as many communities as possible?
  4. How should we manage original descriptions and the evidence of past descriptive practices?

Theme 4: Decolonizing knowledge and research

Decolonizing knowledge means opening research horizons and visions beyond mainstream academia and media. Integrating Traditional Indigenous Knowledge is key to beginning this process.

  1. What are the perceived areas of difficulty and opportunity concerning incorporating Traditional Indigenous Knowledge into mainstream academia?
  2. Has your institution taken any steps to integrate Traditional Indigenous Knowledge into your research practices? What have been the challenges?
  3. How do research institutions navigate collaboration across multiple communities with diverse (and sometime conflicting) points of view?
    • Should collaboration be focused on local Indigenous communities, or broadened to include as many communities as possible?
  4. Has your institution done work to sensitize students and staff to the correct terms, definitions, parameters and protocols of engaging with Indigenous communities?
    • Why or why not?
    • Have there been any challenges in doing so?

Theme 5: Decolonizing language(s)

In the past, language choice and terminology has contributed to the reinforcement of colonial views. Decolonizing language within institutions creates a more inclusive space for students, staff, and visitors.

  1. Are there terms and concepts commonly used in your institution that contain language that could be considered colonial, exclusionary or offensive? What strategies does/will your institution employ to remediate this issue?
  2. What are the perceived areas of difficulty in decolonizing language and language accessibility?
  3. How can our institutions broaden their use of language to include many voices?
  4. Should collaboration be focused on local Indigenous communities, or broadened to include as many communities as possible?

Theme 6: Decolonizing through meaningful engagement

Engagement is key to the evolving relationship with Indigenous Peoples. Care must be taken in determining the ‘who’ and the ‘how’ of engagement to ensure that a broad spectrum of voices can be heard and inform the way forward.

  1. What are the perceived areas of difficulty concerning engagement with Indigenous peoples?
  2. Should collaboration be focused on local Indigenous communities, or broadened to include as many communities as possible?
  3. Is there a difference between consultation and engagement?
  4. Has your institution done work to sensitize students and staff to the correct terms, definitions, parameters and protocols of engaging with Indigenous communities?
    • Why or why not?
    • Have there been any challenges in doing so?
  5. Does your institution have a strategy or an approach focused on engagement with Indigenous peoples?

Theme 7: Decolonizing ownership (artifacts, languages, lands)

One of the major components of decolonizing ownership is the repatriation of artifacts to Indigenous communities. The challenge lies in balancing the need for restitution and the desire to preserve and protect history and heritage.

  1. Who owns and who controls Indigenous artifacts, language, and collections documenting Indigenous traditions?
    • Should rights always lie with creators/owners? Or do the subjects of documentation have a claim to ownership and control?
  2. Has your institution considered or participated in repatriation? If so, what have been the challenges?
  3. Has your institution made steps to deaccessioning Indigenous-related material? If so, what have been the challenges?
  4. What can collaboration with Indigenous communities contribute during the process of decolonizing ownership?
    • Should collaboration be focused on local Indigenous communities, or broadened to include as many communities as possible?
  5. How do you reconcile Indigenous protocols with the mandated responsibilities of the institution? How do we integrate Indigenous view points into custodial responsibilities?

Appendix III: Biographies of Speakers and Panelists

 
photo of Camille Callison

Keynote: Camille Callison, Indigenous Services Librarian, University of Manitoba

Honouring Our Path Toward Reconciliation: Addressing the Information Needs of Indigenous Peoples and Building Relationships

Camille Callison (B.A. Anthropology, M.L.I.S. First Nations Concentration) is from the Tsesk iye (Crow) Clan of the Tahltan Nation, the Indigenous Services Librarian/Liaison Librarian for Anthropology, Native Studies & Social Work and a Member of the Indigenous Advisory Circle at the University of Manitoba. Camille is the Canadian Federation of Library Associations/Fédération canadienne des associations de bibliothèques (CFLA-FCAB) Indigenous Representative; a member, Copyright Committee and Chair of the Indigenous Matters Committee. She is a member of IFLA Indigenous Matters Standing Committee and the Canadian Commission for UNESCO Memory of the World Committee and Sector Commission on Culture, Communications & Information.

 
photo of Donna Bourne-Tyson

Moderator: Donna Bourne-Tyson, University Librarian, Dalhousie University

Donna Bourne-Tyson is the University Librarian at Dalhousie University. Research interests include digital scholarship, OA publishing, and the impact of technology on equitable access, reading and learning. Donna is the President of the Canadian Association of Research Libraries (CARL), and a founding member of Portage, the national Research Data Management network supported by CARL. She is the Chair of the Council of Atlantic University Libraries, Vice-President of Canadiana.org, and has served as Board Vice-Chair for the Canadian Research Knowledge Network (CRKN) and Co-Chair of the Canadian Federation of Library Associations (CFLA), among other association roles.

 
photo of Melissa Adams

Panelist: Melissa Adams, Librarian and Archivist, Union of BC Indian Chiefs

Decolonizing, Not Recolonizing

Melissa Adams is a member of the Nisga’a Nation from the House of Wisin Xbil’tkw of the Gisk'aast (Killerwhale) tribe. She is the librarian and archivist at the Union of British Columbia Indian Chiefs (UBCIC) where she supports UBCIC’s work representing and advocating for Indigenous interests, rights and title. This includes managing the library collection, institutional archives, digital resources and gallery space, as well as providing reference services and training support. Her interests include access issues related to Indigenous materials held in Western institutions, how archives might better incorporate Indigenous recordkeeping perspectives and practices, and education related to the information studies field. She has a Master of Archival Studies from the University of British Columbia and completed the Aboriginal Training Program in Museum Practices at the Canadian Museum of History.

 
photo of Andrea Bear Nicholas

Panelist: Andrea Bear Nicholas, Professor Emeritus, St. Thomas University

Practical and Ethical considerations for Federal and Provincial Repositories holding Indigenous Materials

Maliseet from Nekotkok (Tobique First Nation), she served as Chair of Studies in Aboriginal Cultures of Atlantic Canada at St. Thomas University (STU) for 20 years, and now holds the title of Professor Emerita. In 2010 she received a three-year SSHRC grant to research immersion for adults as a means of preserving an endangered language. She is currently still employed at STU to maintain an intensive Maliseet language program for adults, and the Native Language Immersion Teacher Training Program which she developed with the assistance of Dorothy Lazore, the founder of the Mohawk Immersion Program at Kahnawake. Andrea has taught courses on Mi’kmaq and Maliseet History, Native Women, Native Education, and Colonialism, and has published articles on these topics and others, including treaties, oral traditions, and language survival. In 2016 she won an award for best article in the 2015 issue of Journal of Canadian Studies. She is currently working with her husband Darryl Nicholas to edit a large collection of stories in the Maliseet language, and to publish documentary histories of Maliseet communities in the Maliseet language.

 
photo of Erica Hernández-Read

Panelist: Erica Hernández-Read, Archivist, Access and Digital Initiatives, University of Northern BC

Heeding the Call to Action: Reconciliation through Institutional Engagement and Professional Action

Erica Hernández-Read, M.A.S. is an archivist with the Northern BC Archives and Special Collections at the University of Northern British Columbia who has spent the last 17 years working in the fields of archives and artifact collections management. Ms. Hernández-Read is a passionate advocate for participatory and community archiving and for providing for the inclusion of marginalized and underrepresented peoples within Canada’s archival system. She is a member of the Indigitization Program Steering Committee, the Canadian Federation of Library Associations Indigenous Matters Committee and the Prince George Heritage Commission. She is Chair of the Response to the Report of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission Taskforce of the Steering Committee on Canada’s Archives.

 
photo of Brenda Macdougall

Panelist: Brenda Macdougall, Associate Professor, Holder of the Chair in Métis Research, University of Ottawa

Ancestral Traces in the Documentary Record: Tracing Indigenous People through Colonial Sources

Brenda was appointed the Chair of Métis Research at the University of Ottawa in 2010 after working for over ten years in the Department of Native Studies at the University of Saskatchewan. She holds a PhD in Native Studies and has been researching the history of various Metis communities in Canada for many years. Her first book was One of the Family: Metis Culture in Nineteenth Century Northwestern Saskatchewan was published in 2010 and she was co-editor Contours of a People: Metis Family, Mobility, and History. In her role as research chair, Brenda has built a strong program of research in the connections between Metis families across the homeland. More recently, she and her colleagues created the Digital Archives Database Project, an online archive of transcribed historical records, with the support of the Métis and Non-Status Indian Relations Directorate.

 
photo of Normand Charbonneau

Presenter: Normand Charbonneau, Chief Operating Officer, Library and Archives Canada

Normand Charbonneau is Assistant Deputy Minister and Chief Operating Officer at Library and Archives Canada, a position he has held since April 2015. He was Québec provincial archivist from 2012 to 2015. He taught at the Université du Québec in Montréal, and at Université Laval in Quebec City. He was also actively involved in the Association des archivistes du Québec (AAQ), the Canadian Council of Archives (CCA), the Association internationale des archivistes francophones (AIAF). He is presently Vice-President of the International Council on Archives (ICA).

 
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