Educational Resources

The activities included in this resource are starting points, from which teachers can develop lessons incorporating the online celebration of Canadian cookbooks and culinary history, Bon appétit!, into a wide variety of subject areas. The activities are organized under the same theme names used on the website. Some of the activities, however, could easily be used with more than one theme. The suggested activities can be adapted to suit the needs of a specific class or curriculum.

Learning objectives and curriculum connections

Learning Objectives

While completing activities using sources from Bon appétit!, students will:

  • gain an understanding of the influence food has had on Canadian history and culture;
  • see how Aboriginal people and immigrants have contributed to the cooking culture of Canada;
  • navigate computer software to complete online activities and use the Internet for research;
  • communicate ideas, interpret information and identify various viewpoints, using a variety of primary-source materials;
  • demonstrate reasoning, critical thinking, cooperative learning and research skills, through practical applications of science, geography, health and mathematics.

Curriculum Connections

Social Studies (History and Geography)
Grade 4 (B.C., Yukon, Alta., N.W.T. Nun., Sask., Man., N.B., N.S., Nfld. and Lab.)
Grade 5 (B.C., Yukon, Alta., N.W.T., Nun., Sask., Man., N.B., N.S., P.E.I., Nfld. and Lab.)
Grade 6 (B.C., Yukon, Alta., N.W.T., Nun., Sask., Man., Ont., Que., N.B., N.S., Nfld. and Lab.)
Grade 7 (Alta., N.W.T., Nun., Man., Ont., N.B., N.S., Nfld. and Lab.)
Grade 8 (Ont., N.B., N.S., P.E.I.)

Language (Reading, Writing, Oral and Visual Communications)
Grades 4-8

Mathematics (Computation, Measurement, Graphing)
Grades 4-8

Science
Grade 4 (Sask., Que.)
Grade 5 (B.C., Yukon, Alta., N.W.T. Nun., Sask., Man., Ont., Que., Atlantic Canada)
Grade 6 (B.C., Yukon, Sask., Que.)
Grade 7 (Alta., N.W.T., Nun., Sask., Man., Ont., Que., Atlantic Canada)
Grade 8 (Alta., N.W.T., Nun., Sask., Que.)

Technology
Grades 4-8

Health/Wellness/Active Living
Grades 4-8

Visual Arts
Grades 4-8

Suggested activities

Theme One - Canada's First Cooks

Activity 1 - Adapting to the Environment
Food procurement, preparation, and storage were an integral part of the daily lives of Aboriginal people. In their study of an Aboriginal group, have the students use Bon appétit! and other research materials, to find out how Aboriginal people in various parts of the country adapted to their environment and used their environment effectively to provide their basic food needs. To communicate their research results, have the students create a visual product that shows the various uses of the environment; or have the students write an exposition showing how the Aboriginal group they are studying used their environment wisely and effectively. Students could also be prompted to note any special ceremonies or traditions associated with the foods or their preparation.

As an extension, students could mark on a map of Canada the location of the various Aboriginal peoples and draw symbols to represent the foods each group ate.

Activity 2 - The Order of Good Cheer
The first social club in Canada was formed by Samuel de Champlain to help the early settlers cope with the long, cold winters of their new land. Food was an important part of this socialization, with inhabitants taking turns planning the menus, preparing the food and organizing the entertainment.

In groups, students can plan their own Order of Good Cheer menu. They can find menus and recipes on the CBC Order of Good Cheer website (www.cbc.ca/ideas/features/cheer/), or by following some of the links to digitized early Canadian cookbooks found in the Further Research section of Bon appétit!. They can also use some of the recipes from early French-Canadian settlements.

As an extension, one menu could be chosen by the class or each group could contribute a recipe, and the class could bring in the food and prepare their own banquet, as Champlain's settlers did. To make their banquet even more authentic, each group could find or write an original period-appropriate entertainment, such as a play, song or dance to be performed at the banquet.

Activity 3 - Creative Ideas Starting with Art
Students can use one of the visual images featured on Bon appétit! to learn more about the time period. The watercolour of the Order of Good Cheer by C.W. Jefferys would be a good starting point. Students can imagine placing themselves into the picture and then write a journal entry or narrative about what is happening. Questions to guide the students' writing could include: Who is in the picture? What are they doing? What does this picture teach us about the time period? An extension or alternative would be for the students to become one of the characters or objects in the picture, and to tell the story of what is happening from the perspective of that character or object.

Activity 4 - Learning From Each Other
Students can research the Bon appétit! website and other sites to see how cooperation between Aboriginal peoples and early European explorers and settlers benefited each group, and how it influenced the preparation of food. (For example, Aboriginal people obtained cooking pots and tools; Europeans learned about new foods, storing foods, etc.) Students could communicate these reciprocal relationships using some form of creative expression (e.g. pictures, poetry and drama).

Activity 5 - Modernizing for Today's Kitchen
Many of the early recipes featured on this website are written without exact measurement (e.g. a pinch or a good handful) or are in Imperial rather than metric measurement units. Have students, in teams or individually, choose recipes from the website and modernize them so they can easily be used in today's kitchens.

Theme Two - The Pioneer Kitchen

Activity 6 - Geography Counts
Students can start by learning about the physical regions of Canada and their characteristics: climate, soil, natural resources, etc. In groups, students could imagine moving into one of these regions as an early pioneer. Their mandate would be to create a small community that depended on the environment for its survival. As part of this assignment, students would decide what food would be available in their region, and what they could use from the environment to help them prepare and store it. Students could write journals, descriptions or narratives to describe their immigrant experience.

A further extension would be to have students research and compare their imaginary experience to a real, 19th-century, immigrant experience in Canada.

Activity 7 - Budding Scientists Explore Matter and Materials
Have students design an experiment that will demonstrate how cooking creates physical or chemical changes in ingredients used in cooking. Students could search Bon appétit! for a recipe that will demonstrate their hypothesis.

Topics for exploration and experimentation include:

  • how physical and/or chemical reactions take place in the household (e.g. the effect of heat on food or the addition of a substance like baking soda to a recipe);
  • how processes such as dissolving affect different materials;
  • how the mass of a liquid and a solid in their original states compares with the mass of the liquid that results when the two substance combine;
  • how the mass of a whole recipe compares to the sum of the masses of its parts;
  • how cooking alters the state of matter, creating mixtures and solutions.

Activity 8 - Capturing Time
Many recipes in early Canada were passed on orally or in hand-written family cookbooks. Have students interview a grandparent or other relative, and document their family's favourite recipe. As well as listing the ingredients, students should be prepared to provide insight into why the recipe is a favourite family treat or tradition, and give hints on how this recipe is made special and unique.

An alternative or extension would be to have students bring in copies of special recipes from a hand-written family cookbook, if they have one, that illustrates special hints, etc.

Note: These cookbooks are family treasures so it should be suggested that students bring in photocopies of their recipes or if that is not possible, to bring in the book and have the needed pages photocopied at school so no harm comes to the original book.

Activity 9 - See it in Action
There are many historic sites in Canada that have re-enactments of early pioneer life. Visit a historic site, such as Fort Louisbourg in Nova Scotia, the Village acadien in New Brunswick, Upper Canada Village in Ontario, or Fort Edmonton in Alberta, to see how the early settlers cooked using the utensils and foods that were available at the time.

Theme Three - Revolutions in the Kitchen

Activity 10 - Investigative Teamwork: Things That Changed the Way We Eat
The late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries were times of change in Canada. New discoveries changed the ways Canadians obtained, prepared and stored food.

Divide the class into investigative teams to research and report on some of these changes and how they affected the Canadian kitchen. A lot of material is available from Bon appétit!, but students should also be encouraged to use sources from the Internet, print and other media. Topics for investigation could include:

  • pasteurization
  • electricity
  • vitamins
  • cooking methods (stoves and utensils)
  • canning
  • refrigeration
  • frozen foods
  • catalogues

An extension would be to look at how the eating habits of Canadians were affected by historical events, such as food rationing and the use of food stamps during the world wars and the Great Depression.

Activity 11 - People Who Make a Difference
Adelaide Hoodless, who is featured on this website, did a lot to change the Canadian kitchen. Have students, in teams or individually, read about Hoodless and then use Internet and print materials to research other individuals who contributed to changes in the Canadian home through the creation of new foods, advancements in nutrition or the development of new kitchen technologies. Some possibilities for research include discoverers of Canadian fruit, vegetable or wheat varieties; makers of Canadian cheeses; inventors of food preservation or packaging methods; or people who contributed to advances in nutrition, medicine, or technology that have changed the way Canadians think about diet and food preparation.

Students could write a biography of their individual or make an oral presentation on the individual that shows how he or she changed cooking in Canada. Students may choose to wear a costume and pretend to be that individual for their presentation. Students could also create "personality cubes" -- geometric cubes made of construction paper or other suitable paper; each outside face of the cube reflects a different facet of the subject's personality, communicated in writing or art.

Activity 12 - Create Your Own Cookbook
Have students bring in their favourite family recipe and publish a class cookbook. The finished product could be printed professionally or at your school, depending on your budget and purpose. Many of the cookbooks on this website have added features such as household hints, cooking techniques, food origins, etc. Add original features to your class cookbook. Suggestions include: a short introductory history of your school; original drawings by students for section cover pages or to complement some of the recipes; household tips for removing stains; or tips on proper etiquette. Finished cookbooks could be sold to recover the printing costs or as a class fundraiser.

Activity 13 - Travel Across Canada with Madame Benoit
Madame Benoit was probably the best-known cooking expert Canada has produced. She learned a lot about Canadian cooking by travelling, observing, and talking to Canadians all across Canada. Have students make a simulated cross-Canada trip with the task of finding out regional traditions. Have students map out their journey on a large piece of paper, with stops in one or more places of interest in each province and territory. To show the regional traditions, students can place symbols that are associated with that region (e.g. Calgary Stampede in Alberta and an example of food that visitors should try while there). Examples of many regional foods can be found on this website.

Activity 14 - Healthy Food Choices
Introduce students to the macronutrients (carbohydrates, proteins and fat) that provide our bodies with energy and ensure healthy growth and development. In groups, have students examine Canada's Food Guide to Healthy Eating and determine which macronutrients are found in each of the four food groups.

Conduct a survey of what the students have eaten for breakfast or for one entire day. To keep the survey anonymous, have the students write their foods on a piece of unsigned paper and deposit the papers in a designated box or bag. Create categories for your results such as: meeting all food group requirements; three food group requirements; two food group requirements; one food group requirement or no food group requirements. Have students graph the results. Follow up by discussing the benefits of eating well-balanced meals and have each student set person goals for improving his or her diet. Repeat the survey with the same class at a later date and compare the results.

An extension would be to work either in small groups or individually and use the recipes found on this website to devise a healthy menu for a family for a day. Menus could be traded and evaluated for nutritional balance.

A further extension of this activity would be to discuss the roles of other key nutrients such as minerals (iron, calcium, etc.), vitamins (A, B, C, D, etc.) and fibre, and then have students identify the foods in their menu that will provide each of these nutrients.

Theme Four - The Culture of Cooking

Activity 15 - The World in Our Kitchens
Have students make a list of the ingredients from a recipe or recipes found on this website and then research where each ingredient comes from. Have students then show this information on a map, with arrows drawn from the exporting country to their community. (The name of the food could be printed along the arrow.) A variation on this activity would be to have the students bring in a list of all food they normally eat in their homes.

This activity could be used as a springboard for introducing the concepts of primary, secondary and tertiary industries. After the concepts are introduced, have the students produce flow charts or pictures that demonstrate their understanding of the industries involved in moving a food product from the farm to the table.

Activity 16 - Farming Depends on Many Factors
Many of the main ingredients for recipes on this website are grown in Canada on commercial farms. Have students research a specific region or several regions in Canada to determine how commercial farming is affected by location, climate, raw materials, market, labour and transportation.

As an extension activity, you could arrange a visit to a commercial farm where students could see which of these factors affect a particular crop or agricultural product.

Activity 17 - Life Systems: Interactions Within Ecosystems
Have students interpret food webs to understand the interdependence of parts of the food chain. Discuss how damaging or eliminating one part of a food chain affects the other parts. Have the students investigate either a natural disaster or phenomenon (e.g. drought, flooding) or a human action (e.g. building a new shopping mall or business on prime farm land or the use of pesticides on food crops) and show how these phenomena or actions affect Canada's food production.

Have students investigate ways in which natural communities within ecosystems can change, and ask them to explain how such changes can affect animal and plant populations.

Activity 18 - Celebration of Canadian Foods or Multicultural Café
As immigrants from all over the world came to Canada, they brought with them the recipes and foods of their mother countries. As part of your studies of the diversity of the Canadian mosaic, conduct a multicultural festival in your classroom. Working in teams, students can research the contributions of selected immigrant groups and share their findings with the class using both multimedia and static displays. As part of their assignment, each group could research and share a popular recipe from their assigned culture, and perhaps even prepare a sampling of that recipe as part of their display or report.

If your class is concentrating on one specific culture, you could organize a café for that culture within your classroom and invite parents or school staff members in for an hour of food and entertainment. Students can be involved in choosing menus, making invitations to parents or staff, budgeting, purchasing food, maintaining accounting records, preparing food and entertainment and operating and cleaning up the café. Visitors to the café could be charged a nominal amount to cover the cost of the event.

Activity 19 - Healthy Active Living
Choices students make in their individual diets influence their health. Have your students complete a concept map to consider how their choices will affect their health. Topics could include: eating in fast-food restaurants; overeating; not eating a balanced diet; and snacking on junk food. Factors that could be considered include: reasons for the food choices, influences (e.g. peers, parents), consequences of the choice, and alternative choices or prevention of negative consequences. As part of a larger unit on healthy active living, students could include other topics such as exercise, smoking and drug use.

As an extension, students in groups could examine ways in which one can practice healthy eating while accommodating vegetarianism, cultural influences, individual preferences, allergies/medical conditions, diabetes, etc.

The Recipe Game

Mystery Recipe 1

Welcome to the Recipe Game! The Recipe Game challenges you to identify the ingredients of four mystery recipes by answering questions about the history of food and cooking. Answer each question to reveal the next ingredient in the mystery recipe.

1. Before this first ingredient could be used by the early settlers, it was separated and ground at a water-powered mill called a grist mill.

Identify the ingredient: sugar / flour / starch / onions

Ingredient Clue: The early European settlers made this product from wheat instead of the corn used by First Nations people.

The correct ingredient is flour. Start off your recipe with 750 ml (3 cups) of wheat flour. The First Nations people hand-ground their corn flour, but the first water-powered mill for wheat flour started at Port-Royal in 1607.

2. In ancient times, this next ingredient was sometimes used as money.

Identify the ingredient: salt / rocks / leaves / sugar

Ingredient Clue: This ingredient was used by early settlers in Canada to cure meat and preserve fish.

The correct ingredient is salt. You now need to add 5 ml (1 teaspoon) of salt to the flour (if you have baking powder, add 45 ml (3 tbsp.)). The first salt bed in Canada was found by mistake. In 1866 Samuel Platt was drilling for oil but found a salt bed instead.

3. Once you have mixed together the dry ingredients, you make a hole in the centre of your mixture and add this ingredient. Make sure you save some of this ingredient, because you will need to use it later to help cook your food.

Identify the ingredient: eggs / yogurt / molasses / butter

Ingredient Clue: This ingredient is a fat, an essential cooking ingredient.

The ingredient you're looking for is butter. Melt 30 ml (2 tablespoons) of butter and pour it in the hole you made in your dry ingredients, along with 375 ml (1½ cups) of water. Mix the ingredients together to make the dough. Split the dough into smaller parts and place it in a frying pan. Use some of your remaining butter to grease the pan. Don't forget to cook it on both sides.

Guess the recipe: pancakes / bannock / biscuits / baguette

Clue for Guessing Recipe Name: This food, originally from Scotland, was very important to Canada's early fur traders and settlers. Once the First Nations people were able to get milled flour, they also began to make this dish a staple of their diet.

The mystery recipe is: Bannock

750 ml 3 cups flour
45 ml 3 tbsp. baking powder (if available)
5 ml 1 tsp. salt
30 ml 2 tbsp. melted butter
375 ml 1½ cups water

Mystery Recipe 2

1. Next to wild game, this was the most popular meat of the early settlers.

Identify the ingredient : pork / chicken / hare / groundhog

Ingredient Clue : This meat was often preserved in heavy salt brine so it could be eaten during the long, cold winters when other meat was not available.

Pork is the meat we need. Put 500 g (1 pound) of ground pork into a pot. If game meat is available, you might use it instead.

2. The next ingredient is a root crop that will give flavour to the food.

Identify the ingredient: corn / paprika / onion / beets

Ingredient Clue : The common variety of this seasoning comes in a single large white bulb covered with a light brown or yellowish skin.

The ingredient that you need is an onion. Peel and dice a small onion and add it to the pot. Be careful that it doesn't make your eyes water!

3. This ingredient, which originates from southern Europe, comes in a bulb that separates into smaller parts.

Identify the ingredient : tulip / garlic / ginger / cumin

Ingredient Clue : Some people avoid this condiment because of its strong odour, while others think it is a medical wonder.

The ingredient is garlic. Garlic will add a distinctive odour and flavour to your dish. Mince a clove of garlic and add it to your meet in the pot.

4. This seasoning helps us digest our food, but using too much is thought to be a cause of hypertension and heart disease.

Identify the ingredient : dried chillies / pepper / parmesan / salt

Ingredient Clue : This is probably the most often-used seasoning to flavour our food.

Salt is the ingredient you need. Add 2 ml (½ teaspoon) of salt to the meat in the pot. If you used salt pork as an ingredient, you may not want to add any more salt to your recipe.

5. The next ingredient comes from an evergreen tree that is cultivated for its aromatic dried flower buds. It is used as a spice.

Identify the ingredient : ground cloves / dandelion / spruce needles / oregano

Ingredient Clue : The dried buds are dark brown in colour and are often used whole in some recipes.

The spice is a clove and your recipe may take more than one. Grind the buds into a fine powder before putting them into this recipe. Add 1 ml (¼ teaspoon) of ground cloves to your pot along with 2 ml (½ teaspoon) of dried savory and 1 ml (¼ teaspoon) of celery salt.

6. This ingredient is the most common liquid used in cooking.

Identify the ingredient : oil / sherry / water / milk

Ingredient Clue : Although this ingredient is easy to find, you have to make sure that it comes from a reliable, non-polluted source.

Water is the ingredient. The water will add moisture to your recipe and make it easier to mix up the ingredients you have so far. Add 125 ml (½ cup) of water to your meat. Mix everything together in a large pot, bring it to a boil and then cook it uncovered for about 20 minutes.

7. The last ingredient will absorb the fat from the meat and thicken your dish. It is added after the pot is removed from the heat.

Identify the ingredient : bread crumbs / tofu / bacon / pasta

Ingredient Clue : Before you use this common wheat product you dry and then crumble it.

You need bread. Dry and crumble the bread before adding it. You will need about 125 ml (½ cup) of bread crumbs. Let your mixture stand for 10 minutes and then fill a pie plate lined with a pie crust. Cover with a second layer of crust, seal the crust and bake in a 500-degree (260ºC) oven until golden brown. Serve your creation hot.

Guess the recipe : pita pocket / Pad Thai / fajitas / tourtière

Clue for Guessing Recipe Name : This dish started as a French-Canadian dish but is now used in all parts of Canada, especially at Christmas time.

The mystery recipe is : Tourtière

500 g 1 pound ground pork
1 1 small onion, diced
1 1 garlic clove, minced
2 ml ½ tsp. salt
1 ml ¼ tsp. ground clove
2 ml ½ tsp. dried savory
1 ml ¼ tsp. celery salt
125 ml ½ cup water
125 ml about ½ cup dried bread crumbs
2 2 pie crusts

Mystery Recipe 3

1. This first ingredient grows on a shrub. How many grow each year depends on how thick the snow was the winter before.

Identify the ingredient : strawberries / raspberries / blueberries / cranberries

Ingredient Clue : Bears, birds, squirrels and many other animals love to eat this berry.

The berry you are after is the blueberry. If the snow is not deep enough to cover the shrub, then many of the fruit-bearing branches will freeze and not be able to produce berries the next spring. Put 1 L (4 cups) of blueberries into a large bowl.

2. This ingredient is made from a raw material produced in a tropical country.

Identify the ingredient : salt / sand / cinnamon / sugar

Ingredient Clue : In Canada, this product can be produced by removing the sweet part of a beet.

The next ingredient is sugar. Although most sugar is refined from sugar cane, sugar refined from beets is produced in Quebec, Manitoba and Alberta. The first company in Canada to refine raw sugar from sugar cane was established in Montréal in the 1850s. Add 190 ml (¾ cup) of sugar to the bowl, as well as 45 ml (3 tablespoons) of flour and 2 ml (½ teaspoon) of salt, and mix together with the blueberries.

3. You will need to prepare this part of the recipe in advance. Put one part in the bottom of a pan, add the blueberry mixture, sprinkle it with lemon juice and then put the second part of your new product on top.

Identify the ingredient : pie crust / shortbread / crepes / toast

Ingredient Clue : This part of the recipe is made mainly from flour, vegetable fat or butter, beaten eggs and water.

Pastry or pie crust is what you need. Slit the top layer of pastry so that steam will be able to escape while it is cooking. Cook it in a 400-degree oven (205ºC) for 35 to 40 minutes or until the pastry is browned.

4. Once your dessert is baked, you need to make the perfect topping. The main ingredient in this topping is a whitish liquid, produced by the mammary glands of female mammals.

Identify the ingredient : juice / custard / tapioca / cream

Ingredient Clue : This ingredient is listed under dairy products in Canada's Food Guide to Healthy Eating.

Cream is the main ingredient in the topping. Cream will add proteins, fats, lactose, vitamins and minerals to your topping. Add 250 ml (1 cup) of cream 35 % in a deep bowl.

5. The next ingredient adds flavour to your topping.

Identify the ingredient : vanilla / olive oil / maple syrup / milk

Ingredient Clue : This flavouring is difficult and expensive to extract. Today, a cheaper, artificial version is often used in its place.

Vanilla is the ingredient you're looking for. It will add flavour to your topping. The vanilla used for flavouring is extracted from the seed pod of the vanilla plant and cured. Add 5 ml (1 teaspoon) of vanilla, and 30 ml (2 teaspoons) of sugar. With an electric beatter, whip for approximately four minutes. You will have created a very special treat. If this preparation is unavailable you can use ice cream.

Guess the recipe : blueberry pie / pecan pie / brownies / Nanaimo bars

Clue for Guessing Recipe Name : This is a very enjoyable dessert. When you add the topping it is often referred to as ___________ a la mode.

The mystery recipe is : Blueberry Pie with Ice Cream

1 L 4 cups blueberries
190 ml ¾ cup sugar
45 ml 3 tbsp. flour
2 ml ½ tsp. salt
15 ml 1 tbsp. lemon juice
2 2 pie crusts
250 ml 1 cup cream 35 %
5 ml 1 tsp. vanilla
30 ml 2 tbsp. sugar

Mystery Recipe 4

1. The first ingredient comes from a member of the bovine family and was first brought to Canada by the early European settlers.

Identify the ingredient : lamb / beef / chicken / bison

Ingredient Clue : The source of this ingredient provides many types of food, including milk, cheese, butter and meat.

The ingredient is about 1 kg (2 pounds) of beef, which needs to be cubed and browned in 30 ml (2 tablespoons) of melted butter or oil.

2. You have to be careful with this next ingredient. If you boil it too long you will not have enough for your recipe.

Identify the ingredient : water / oil / lard / eggs

Ingredient Clue : This substance is sometimes referred to as H2O.

The ingredient is water. Boil 1 litre (4 cups) of water and pour it over the meat in the pot. Make sure that you do not let too much evaporate.

3. The next ingredient is a small, dark, dried fruit used as a condiment to season food.

Identify the ingredient : pepper / cumin / cinnamon / salt

Ingredient Clue : You usually buy this condiment ground, but some people buy it whole and grind it themselves.

Black pepper is the condiment we are looking for. You can flavour your dish by adding 2 ml (½ teaspoon) of pepper, along with 5 ml (1 teaspoon) Worcestershire sauce, 15 ml (1 tablespoon) salt, and a pinch of either allspice or cloves.

4. If you add too much of this fruit your dish will have a tart taste.

Identify the ingredient : orange / banana / pineapple / lemon

Ingredient Clue : In addition to being used to add favour in cooking, this juice makes a tasty drink when combined with water and sugar.

The ingredient we are looking for is lemon juice. Add extra flavour to your dish by adding 15 ml (1 tablespoon) of lemon juice. The lemon is the fruit of an Asian evergreen tree.

5. This next seasoning is a mild powder made from sweet red peppers.

Identify the ingredient : chili / paprika / basil / chives

Ingredient Clue : The colour of this seasoning is dark or deep reddish orange.

The spice we are looking for is paprika. Add 2 ml (½ teaspoon) of paprika to your mixture along with a clove of crushed garlic and 1 or 2 bay leaves. Cover your pot and simmer for 2 hours, stirring occasionally.

6. After 2 hours, remove the bay leaves and start adding your vegetables. The first vegetable is green and is often added along with onion to add flavour to dishes.

Identify the ingredient : carrots / celery / potatoes / onions

Ingredient Clue : You often remove the leaves from the stalks of this vegetable before you use it.

The vegetable is celery. Dice 2 stalks of celery and 1 onion and add them to your seasoned meat mixture.

7. Another vegetable to be added is a root crop that is native to Siberia.

Identify the ingredient : cabbage / squash / turnip / catnip

Ingredient Clue : This vegetable is often confused with a vegetable called a rutabaga.

Turnip is the vegetable you need. Cut a turnip into small pieces and add it to your seasoned meat dish. This root crop is a good source of calcium, potassium, and vitamins A and C.

8. This root crop was used as a medicinal herb in Afghanistan before it was introduced to Europe during medieval times.

Identify the ingredient : mango / carrots / oranges / leeks

Ingredient Clue : This orange-coloured vegetable is grown in every province of Canada.

Carrots are the vegetable you're looking for. Carrots are an excellent source of ascorbic acid. Dice 4 or 5 carrots and add them to the pot.

9. The final item is the most valuable vegetable crop grown in Canada.

Identify the ingredient : macaroni / cheese curds / tomatoes / potatoes

Ingredient Clue : This crop represents over 50% of all fresh vegetables consumed in Canada.

The last vegetable needed is the potato. Potatoes originated in the Andes but are now grown in temperate climates all over the world. Once you have diced and added 4 or 5 potatoes to the pot, cover and simmer your dish until the vegetables are tender. Serve your creation with warm bread.

Guess the recipe : vegetable soup / poutine / stew / chicken souvlaki

Clue for Guessing Recipe Name : Many variations of this food are served. The meat can be game or other domesticated meat. The condiments chosen depend on what best complements the meat. Vegetables vary from home to home.

The mystery recipe is : Stew

1kg 2.2 lbs. stew beef cubed
30 ml 2 tbsp. fat or oil
1 L 4 cups boiling water
2 ml ½ tsp. black pepper
5 ml 1 tsp. Worcestershire sauce
15 ml 1 tbsp. salt
dash h allspice or cloves
15 ml 1 tbsp. lemon juice
2 ml ½ tsp. paprika
1 clove 1 clove garlic, crushed
1 to 2 1 to 2 bay leaves
2 stalks 2 stalks celery
1 medium 1 medium onion, sliced
1 small 1 small turnip, diced
4 to 5 4 to 5 carrots, diced
4 to 5 4 to 5 potatoes, diced

References

Barss, Bunny. The Great Canadian Cookbook. New York: Mud Puddle Books, 2004.

Benoit, Jehane. L'encyclopédie de la cuisine canadienne. 6th Edition. Montréal: Les Mesageries du Saint-Laurent Ltée, 1963.

The Canadian Encyclopedia (accessed February 15, 2005).

Nelson Canadian Dictionary of the English Language. Scarborough, ON: ITP Nelson, 1997

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