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Before reproducing materials, images and graphical elements, please read Copyright / Permission to Reproduce Material.

Photograph of Native pictographs from British Columbia

Native pictograph near Towdystan, British Columbia

© Public Domain
Credit: Library and Archives Canada / C-046478
Source: Library and Archives Canada

Woodcut: Traditional maple-sugar making

Traditional maple-sugar making

© Public Domain
Moeurs des sauvages ameriquains [sic] comparées aux mœurs des premiers temps; P. Lafitau. Paris: Chez Saugrain l'aîné…, Charles-Estienne Hochereau…, 1724.
Source: Library and Archives Canada

Image: Title page of "Eirik the Red and other Icelandic Sagas"

Title page of Eirik the Red and other Icelandic Sagas

© Oxford University Press, London
Reproduced with the permission of Oxford University Press
Gwyn Jones. London: Oxford University Press, 1961
Source: Library and Archives Canada

Photograph: Re-creation of Norse sod home

Sod house similar to those used by the Norse in Vinland

© Public Domain
Credit: Parks Canada/H01-11-01-04 (26)
Photo courtesy of Parks Canada
Source: Parks Canada

Image: Title page of Hakluyt's "The Principall Navigations..."

Title page of Hakluyt's The Principall Navigations...

© Public Domain
Hakluyt, Richard. The Principall Navigations, Voiages, and Discoveries of the English Nation […]. London: George Bishop and Ralph Newberie, 1589.
Source: Library and Archives Canada

Portrait: Sebastian Cabot

Sebastian Cabot

© Public Domain
Credit: Library and Archives Canada / C-009000
Source: Library and Archives Canada

Map: 16th century map showing cod stream

16th-century map showing cod stream

© Public Domain
Primo -terzo volume, & terza editione delle navigationi et viaggi raccolto gia da M. Gio Battista Ramvsio…; Giovanni Battista Ramusio. Venetia: Nella stamperia de Givnti, 1563-83.
Source: Library and Archives Canada

Image: Title page of Wytfliet's account of the Corte Reals' voyages

Title page of Wytfliet's account of the Corte Reals' voyages

© Public Domain
Wytfliet, Corneille. Histoire universelle des Indes Occidentales […]. Dovay: Francois Fabri, 1607.
Source: Library and Archives Canada

Image: Map of Iroquois village of Hochelaga, 1556

Iroquois village of Hochelaga, 1556

© Public Domain
Primo -terzo volume, & terza editione delle navigationi et viaggi raccolto gia da M. Gio Battista Ramvsio…; Giovanni Battista Ramusio. Venetia: Nella stamperia de Givnti, 1563-83.
Source: Library and Archives Canada

Portrait: Martin Frobisher

Martin Frobisher

© Public Domain
Navigantium atque itinerantium bibliotheca, or, A Compleat Collection of Voyages and Travel…; John Harris. London: Printed for Thomas Bennet…, John Nicholson…, and Daniel Midwinter…, 1705.
Source: Library and Archives Canada

Photograph: Reconstruction of Frobisher's cottage in Arctic

Re-creation of Frobisher's cottage in the Arctic

© Canadian Museum of History
Photo AC99-31 (5 of 7)
Source: Canadian Museum of History

Portrait: Sir Walter Raleigh

Walter Raleigh

© Public Domain
Navigantium atque itinerantium bibliotheca, or, A Compleat Collection of Voyages and Travel…; John Harris. London: Printed for Thomas Bennet…, John Nicholson…, and Daniel Midwinter…, 1705.
Source: Library and Archives Canada

Drawing: Inuk hunting from his kayak, 16th century

Interpretation of 16th-century Inuk hunting from a kayak

© Public Domain
De Martini Forbisseri Angli navigatione in regionae occidentis et septentionis: narratio historica, ex Gallico sermone; Dionyse Settle. [Noribergae N'urnberg, W. Germany] imprimebatur : in officina Catharinae Gerlachin, & Haredum Johanis Montani, anno 1580.
Source: Library and Archives Canada

Image: Title page of Champlain's 1632 account

Title page of Champlain's 1632 account

© Public Domain
Les voyages de la nouvelle France occidentale, dicte Canada faits par le S' de Champlain; Samuel de Champlain; Paris : Chez Claude Collet, 1632.
Source: Library and Archives Canada

Map: "Port de Tadoucac," by Samuel de Champlain, 1608

Port de Tadoussac, by Samuel de Champlain, 1608

© Public Domain
Champlain, Samuel de. Les voyages de sieur de Champlain, Xaintongeois, capitaine ordinaire pour le Roy en la marine, depuis l'année 1608 jusques en 1612. Paris, Jean Berjon, 1613.
Source: Library and Archives Canada

Image: Native canoes at the scene of the battle between the Huron and French and the Iroquois

Sketch showing Champlain in battle, with canoes in front

© Public Domain
Les voyages dv sievr de Champlain, Xaintongeois, capitaine ordinaire pour le Roy en la marine, divisez en devx livres, ou, Iovrnal très-fidèle des observations faites, és decouuertures de la Nouuelle France…; Samuel de Champlain. Paris: Chez Iean Berjon…, 1613.
Source: Library and Archives Canada

Image: Title page of Champlain's 1613 account

Title page of Champlain's 1613 account

© Public Domain
Champlain, Samuel de. Les voyages de sieur de Champlain, Xaintongeois, capitaine ordinaire pour le Roy en la marine, depuis l'année 1608 jusques en 1612. Paris: Jean Berjon, 1613.
Source: Library and Archives Canada

Image: Title page of Ramusio's account of Cartier's voyages

Title page of Ramusio's account of Cartier's voyages

© Public Domain
Ramusio, Giovanni Battista. Terzo volume delle navigationi et viaggi raccolto gia de M. Gio. Battista Ramusio… . Vol. 3. Venice: Nella stamperis de Giunti, 1565.
Source: Library and Archives Canada

Image: Title page of "Seaman's Secrets", by John Davis

Title page of Seaman's Secrets, by John Davis

© Public Domain
Davis, John. The Seaman's Secrets. London: Thomas Dawson, 1607.
Source: Library and Archives Canada

Image: Champlain's habitation

Champlain's habitation

© Public Domain
Histoire de l'Amérique septentrionale: divisée en quatre tomes; Claude-Charles Bacqueville de La Potherie. Paris : Jean-Luc Nion … et François Didot, 1722.
Source: Library and Archives Canada

Image: Title page of one of the Jesuit "Relations"

Title page of one of the Jesuit Relations

© Public Domain
Relation de ce qvi s'est passé en la Novvelle France, en l'année 1634. Paris : Chez Sebastien Cramoisy ..., 1635.
Source: Library and Archives Canada

Image: Title page of Purchas His Pilgramage

Title page of Purchas His Pilgramage

© Public Domain
Purchas, Samuel. Purchas His Pilgrimage, or, Relations of the World and the Religions Observed in All Ages and Places Discovered, From the Creation Unto This Present […]. London: W. Stansby for H. Fetherstone, 1617.
Source: Library and Archives Canada

Portrait: A young Henry Hudson

Hendrick (Henry) Hudson

© Public Domain
Credit: Library and Archives Canada / C-017727
Source: Library and Archives Canada

Portrait: Thomas Button

Thomas Button

© Public Domain
The Voyages of Captain Luke Foxe of Hull and Captain Thomas James of Bristol in Search of a North-West Passage in 1631-32: with Narratives of the Earlier North-West Voyages of Frobisher, Davis, Weymouth, Hall, Knight, Hudson, Button, Gibbons, Bylot, Baffin, Hawkridge and others; Christy Miller. London: Printed for the Hakluyt Society, 1894.
Source: Library and Archives Canada

Map: Illustrations of early whaling industry

Illustrations of early whaling industry

© Public Domain
Purchas His Pilgrimage, or, Relations of the World and the Religions Observed in All Ages and Places Discovered, From the Creation Unto This Present […] Samuel Purchas. London: Printed by W. Stansby for H. Fetherstone, 1626.
Source: Library and Archives Canada

Image: Title page of Sagard's account

Title page of Sagard's account

© Public Domain
Sagard, F. Gabriel. Le Grand Voyage du pays des Hurons, situé en l'Amerique vers la Mer douce, és derniers confins de la nouvelle France, dite Canada. Paris: Denys Moreau, 1632.
Source: Library and Archives Canada

Drawing: Pierre Esprit Radisson

Pierre Esprit Radisson

© Public Domain
Credit: Library and Archives Canada, Canadiana Collection / C-015497
Source: Library and Archives Canada

Image: Title page of Scull's account of Radisson's voyages

Title page of Scull's account of Radisson's voyages

© Public Domain
Scull, G.D., ed. Voyages of Peter Esprit Radisson Being an Account of His Travels and Experiences Among the North American Indians from 1652 to 1684. Boston: The Prince Society, 1885.
Source: Library and Archives Canada

Portrait: Jean-Baptiste Colbert, Minister of the Marine

Jean-Baptiste Colbert, Minister of the Marine

© Public Domain
Credit: Library and Archives Canada, W.H. Coverdale Collection of Canadiana / C-040703
Source: Library and Archives Canada

Portrait: Cavelier de La Salle

Cavelier de La Salle

La Salle, Robert Cavelier, Sieur de, 1643-1687
© Public Domain
Credit: Library and Archives Canada / C-007802
Source: Library and Archives Canada

Graphical element: Engraved image of the building of La Salle's ship, the "Griffon"

The building of La Salle's Griffon

© Public Domain
Credit: Library and Archives Canada / C-001225
Voyage ou Nouvelle découverte d'un très-grand pays, dans l'Amérique, entre le Nouveau Mexique et la mer glaciale ; le R.P. Louis Hennepin. Amsterdam : Chez Adriaan Braakman, Marchand libraire ... , 1704.
Source: Library and Archives Canada

Image: Title page of The Kelsey Papers

Title page of The Kelsey Papers

© Public Record Office of Northern Ireland
Reproduced with the permission of the Deputy Keeper of Records, Public Records Office of Northern Ireland D162/77A-D162/77C
Kelsey, Henry. The Kelsey Papers. Ottawa: F.A. Acland, 1929.
Source: Library and Archives Canada

Image: Joseph Robson's "Plan of York and Prince of Wales's Forts"

Joseph Robson's "Plan of York and Prince of Wales's Forts"

© Public Domain
An Account of Six Years Residence in Hudson's Bay…. London, Payne, 1752
Source: Library and Archives Canada

Image: Canadian militiaman on snowshoes

Canadian militiaman on snowshoes

© Public Domain
Histoire de l'Amérique septentrionale: divisée en quatre tomes; Claude-Charles Bacqueville de La Potherie. Paris: Jean-Luc Nion … et François Didot, 1722.
Source: Library and Archives Canada

Map: Drawn by Native guide for La Vérendrye (Page 1)

Map drawn by Native guide Auchagah (Ochagac) for La Vérendrye

© Public Domain
Credit: Library and Archives Canada / C-016131
Source: France National Archives

Map: Drawn by Native guide for La Vérendrye (Page 2)

Map drawn by Native guide Auchagah for La Vérendrye

© Public Domain
Credit: Library and Archives Canada / C-016133
Source: France National Archives

Image: La Vérendrye plaque

La Vérendrye plaque

© Museum of the South Dakota State Historical Society
Credit: Library and Archives Canada/C-002138

Image: Title page of Hearne's account

Title page of Hearne's account

© Public Domain
Hearne, Samuel. A Journey from Prince of Wales's Fort in Hudson's Bay, to the Northern Ocean. Undertaken by Order of the Hudson's Bay Company, for the Discovery of Copper Mines, a North West Passage; &c. In the Years 1769, 1770, 1771, & 1772. London: A. Strahan and T. Cadell, 1795.
Source: Library and Archives Canada

Drawing: View of Prince of Wales Fort by Samuel Hearne, 1777

View of Prince of Wales Fort by Samuel Hearne, 1777

© Public Domain
A Journey from Prince of Wales's Fort in Hudson's Bay, to the Northern Ocean. Undertaken by Order of the Hudson's Bay Company, for the Discovery of Copper Mines, a North West Passage; &c. in the Years 1769, 1770, 1771, & 1772, Samuel Hearne. London: Printed for A. Strahan and T. Cadell, 1795.
Source: Library and Archives Canada

Portrait: Samuel Hearne

Samuel Hearne

© Hudson's Bay Company Archives, Provincial Archives of Manitoba, P-167
Photo courtesy of the Hudson's Bay Company Archives.
Source: Hudson's Bay Company Archives, Provincial Archives of Manitoba

Image: Remarks about Peter Pond from a manuscript by Saint-Jean de Crèvecoeur

Remarks about Peter Pond by Saint-Jean de Crèvecoeur

© Public Domain
Credit : Library and Archives Canada/ MG 21, Add.Mss. 15332
Source: Library and Archives Canada

Image: Remarks by Saint-Jean de Crèvecoeur written on the copy of Peter Pond's map

Remarks by Saint-Jean de Crèvecoeur on the copy of Peter Pond's map

© Public Domain
Credit : Library and Archives Canada/ MG 21, Add.Mss. 15332, Vol. 9, p. 5
Source: Library and Archives Canada

Portrait: Alexander Mackenzie

Alexander Mackenzie

© Public Domain
Voyages from Montreal on the River St. Lawrence through the Continent of North America, to the Frozen Pacific Oceans in the Years 1789 and 1793…; Alexander Mackenzie. London: Printed for T. Cadell and W. Davies [etc.] by R. Noble, 1801.
Source: Library and Archives Canada

Image: Mackenzie River

Mackenzie River

© Public Domain
Library and Archives Canada/C-093016
Source: Library and Archives Canada

Coloured lithograph: Fort George

Fort George

© Public domain
Credit: Library and Archives Canada, W.H. Coverdale Collection of Canadiana / C-040856
Source: Library and Archives Canada

Portrait: Simon Fraser

Simon Fraser

© Public Domain
The History of the Northern Interior of British Columbia A.G. Morice; Toronto, William Briggs, 1905.
Source: Library and Archives Canada

Painting by George Back: Fort Chipewyan, Alberta

Fort Chipewyan, Alberta, by George Back

© Public Domain
Credit: Library and Archives Canada. Acquired with the assistance of Hoechst and Celanese Canada and with a grant from the Department of Canadian Heritage under the Cultural Property Export and Import Act / C-145926
Source: Library and Archives Canada

Painting: The Rocky Mountains from the Columbia River

The Rocky Mountains from the Columbia River

© Public Domain
Credit: Library and Archives Canada / C-026348 / Accession no. 1969-4-26
Source: Library and Archives Canada

Image: Title page of Mourelle's account

Title page of Mourelle's account

© Public Domain
Maurelle, Francisco. Journal of a Voyage in 1775 to Explore the Coast of America Northward of California, by the Second Pilot of the Fleet, Don Francisco Antonio Maurelle [i.e. Mourelle] in the King's Schooner Called the Sonora and Commanded by Don Juan Francico de la Bodega. London: J. Nichols, 1781.
Source: Library and Archives Canada

Image: View of habitations, Nootka Sound

View of habitations, Nootka Sound

© Public Domain
A Voyage to the Pacific Ocean: Undertaken by the Command of His Majesty, for Making Discoveries in the Northern West Side of North America…; James Cook and James King. London: Printed by W. and A. Strahan for G. Nicol, and T. Cadell, 1784.
Source: Library and Archives Canada

Portrait: James (Giacomo) Cook

James Cook

© Public Domain
Giacomo Cook: [portrait]; Sasso and G.B. Bosio. [Italy: s.n., 177-?]
Source: Library and Archives Canada

Image: Cook's ships moored in Resolution Cove, Nootka Sound, British Columbia

Cook's ships moored in Resolution Cove, Nootka Sound, British Columbia

© Library and Archives Canada/C-011201
Source: Library and Archives Canada

Portrait: George Vancouver

Captain George Vancouver

© British Columbia Archives
Image courtesy of British Columbia Archives, call number PDP02252
Source: British Columbia Archives, Visual Records Catalogue

Image: "Near Cook's Inlet"

Near Cook's Inlet

© Public Domain
Vancouver, George. A Voyage of Discovery to the North Pacific Ocean […] in Which the Coast of North-West America Has Been Carefully Examined and Accurately Surveyed […] and Performed in the Years 1790, 1791, 1792, 1793, 1794, and 1795 […]. London: G.G. and J. Robinson, and J. Edwards, 1798.
Source: Library and Archives Canada

Image: "A Native of King George's Sound"

A Native of King George's Sound

© Public Domain
An Authentic Narrative of a Voyage Performed by Captain Cook and Captain Clerke…, W. Ellis. London: Printed for G. Robinson, J. Sewell and J. Debrett, 1782.
Source: Library and Archives Canada

Portrait: Peter the Great

Peter The Great

© Public Domain
Credit: Library and Archives Canada / C-007185
Source: Library and Archives Canada

Image: Title page of Ross's account

Title page of Ross's account

© Public Domain
Ross, Sir John. Narrative of a Second Voyage in Search of North-West Passage, and of a Residence in the Arctic Regions During the Years 1829, 1830, 1831, 1832, 1833. London: A.W. Webster, 1835.
Source: Library and Archives Canada

Image: "First communication with the Natives of Boothia Felix"

First communication with the Natives of Boothia Felix

© Public Domain
Narrative of a second voyage in search of a north-west passage, and of a residence in the Arctic regions during the years 1829, 1830, 1831, 1832, 1833; Sir John Ross. London : A.W. Webster, 1835.
Source: Library and Archives Canada

Image: "North Hendon: Snow cottages of the Boothians"

North Hendon: Snow cottages of the Boothians

© Public Domain
Narrative of a second voyage in search of a north-west passage, and of a residence in the Arctic regions during the years 1829, 1830, 1831, 1832, 1833; Sir John Ross. London : A.W. Webster, 1835.
Source: Library and Archives Canada

Portrait: Captain W. E. Parry

Captain W. E. Parry

© Public Domain
Credit: Library and Archives Canada / C-011567
Source: Library and Archives Canada

Image: Ikamalick and Apelagliu sketching maps

Inuit hydrographers Ikamalick and Apelagliu, encountered by Captain Ross, sketching maps of the land between Repulse Bay and Prince Regent's Inlet

© Public Domain
Narrative of a Second Voyage in Search of a North-West Passage, and of a Residence in the Arctic Regions during the Years 1829, 1830, 1831, 1832, 1833; Sir John Ross. London: A.W. Webster, 1835.
Source: Library and Archives Canada

Portrait: John Franklin

John Franklin

© Public Domain
Credit: Library and Archives Canada/C-001352
A Narrative of a Second Expedition to the Shores of the Polar Sea in the Years 1825, 1826, and 1827; John Franklin. Philadelphia: Carey, Lea and Carey, 1828.
Source: Library and Archives Canada

Image: Franklin's expedition passing through Point Lata

Franklin's expedition passing through Point Lata

© Public Domain
Credit: Library and Archives Canada, C-089481
Narrative of a second expedition to the shores of the Polar Sea in the years 1825, 1826, and 1827; John Franklin. London : J. Murray, 1828.
Source: Library and Archives Canada

Drawing: Relics found with bodies of Franklin's crew

Relics found with bodies of Franklin's crew

© Public Domain
Illustrated London News, Oct. 15, 1859, p. 367
Source: Library and Archives Canada

Portrait: Robert McClure

Robert McClure

© Public Domain
The Discovery of the North-West Passage by H.M.S. "Investigator" Capt. R. M'Clure, 1850, 1851, 1852, 1853, 1854; Robert McClure. London: Longman, Brown, Green, Longman, & Roberts, 1857.
Source: Library and Archives Canada

Image: H.M.S. "Investigator"

H.M.S. Investigator,

© Public Domain
The Discovery of the North-West Passage by H.M.S. "Investigator" Capt. R. M'Clure, 1850, 1851, 1852, 1853, 1854; Robert McClure. London: Longman, Brown, Green, Longman, & Roberts, 1857.
Source: Library and Archives Canada

Image: H.M.S. "Investigator", by Lieutenant S.G. Cresswell

H.M.S. Investigator, in critical position off Baring Island, 1851

© Public Domain
Credit: Library and Archives Canada / C-016105
Source: Library and Archives Canada

Image: Resting on the portage path

Resting on the portage path

© Public Domain
Explorations in the Interior of the Labrador Peninsula, the Country of the Montagnais and Nasquapee Indians; Henry Youle Hind. London: Longman, Green, Roberts, Longman, & Green, 1863.
Source: Library and Archives Canada

Image: Title page of Amundsen's account

Title page of Amundsen's account

© Public Domain
Amundsen, Roald. Roald Amundsen's "The North West Passage" Being the Record of a Voyage of Exploration of the Ship "Gjøa", 1903-1907. London: Archibald Constable, 1908.
Source: Library and Archives Canada

Portrait: Roald Amundsen

Roald Amundsen

© Public Domain
Roald Amundsen's The North West Passage: Being a Record of a Voyage of Exploration of the ship Gjöa, 1903-1907; Roald Amundsen. New York: Dutton, 1908.
Source: Library and Archives Canada

Photograph: Captain Joseph-Elzéar Bernier

Captain Joseph-Elzéar Bernier

© Public Domain
Credit: Library and Archives Canada, Indian and Northern Affairs Collection / PA-118126
Source: Library and Archives Canada

Photograph: Hoisting a polar bear aboard the "Arctic"

Hoisting a polar bear aboard the Arctic in Lancaster Sound, 1910

© Public Domain
Credit: Library and Archives Canada, Collection J.E. Bernier / C-061750
Source: Library and Archives Canada

Image: Roald Amundsen, before and after 25 days in the Arctic

Roald Amundsen, before and after 25 days in the Arctic on a later journey

© Public Domain
Air Pioneering in the Arctic: The Two Polar Flights of Roald Amundsen and Lincoln Ellsworth; Roald Amundsen. New York: National Americana Society, 1929, plate no. 27. AMICUS 6405625
Source: Library and Archives Canada

Image: Title page of Thévet's account of Cartier's voyages

Title page of Thévet's account of Cartier's voyages

© Public Domain
Thévet, André. Les Singularitez de la France antarctique, autrement nommée Amerique, & de plusieurs terres & isles decouvertes de nostre temps. Paris: Héritiers de Maurice de la Porte, 1558.
Source: Library and Archives Canada

Image: Page from Christopher Columbus's account

A page from Christopher Columbus: His own Book of Privileges, a published facsimile of the original manuscript

© Public Domain
Columbus, Christopher. Christopher Columbus: His own Book of Privileges, 1502. London: B. F. Stevens, 1893.
Source: Library and Archives Canada

Image: Letters patent granted to John Cabot by King Henry VII

Letters patent for a voyage to discover new lands granted to John Cabot and his three sons by the king of England, Henry VII, at Westminster on March 5,1496

© Public Domain
Photo courtesy of the Public Record Office Image Library, UK

Image: Title page of Thwaites' translation of the Jesuit "Relations"

Title page of Thwaites' translation of the Jesuit Relations

© Public Domain
Thwaites, Reuben Gold, ed. The Jesuit Relations and Allied Documents: Travels and Explorations of the Jesuit Missionaries in New France, 1610-1791. Vol. 59. Cleveland: The Burrows Brothers Company, [1900].
Source: Library and Archives Canada

Digital photograph: Title page of de Tonti's account of La Salle's voyages

Title page of de Tonti's account of La Salle's voyages

© Public Domain
Tonti, Henri de. Dernières Découvertes dans l'Amérique septentrionale de M. de la Sale […]. Paris: Jean Guignard, 1697.
Source: Library and Archives Canada

Image: Title page of Knight's published journal of 1717

Title page of Knight's published journal of 1717

© Public Domain
Knight, James. The Founding of Churchill: Being the Journal of Captain James Knight, Governor-in-Chief in Hudson Bay, From the 14th of July to the 13th of September, 1717. Introduction and annotations by James F. Kenney. Toronto: J. M. Dent, 1932.
Source: Library and Archives Canada

Image: Title page of the La Vérendryes’ account, published by the Champlain Society

Title page of the La Vérendryes' account, published by The Champlain Society

© The Champlain Society
Reproduced with the permission of The Champlain Society.
La Vérendrye, Pierre Gaultier de Varennes. Journals and Letters of Pierre Gaultier de Varennes de La Vérendreye and his Sons, With Correspondence Between the Governors of Canada and the French Court, Touching the Search for the Western Sea. Toronto: The Champlain Society, 1927.
Source: Library and Archives Canada

Image: Title page of Mackenzie's voyages of 1789 and 1793

Title page of Mackenzie's voyages of 1789 and 1793

© Public Domain
Mackenzie, Sir Alexander. Voyages From Montreal […] to the Frozen and Pacific Oceans; In the Years 1789 and 1793. London: R. Noble, 1801.
Source: Library and Archives Canada

Image: The assassination of La Salle

The assassination of La Salle

© Public Domain
Credit: Library and Archives Canada / C-099233
Source: Library and Archives Canada

Image: Title page of the Jesuit "Relations"

Title page of one of the Jesuit Relations

© Public Domain
Dablon, Claude. Relation de ce qui s'est passé de plus remarquable aux missions des pères de la Compagnie de Jésus en la Nouvelle France, les années 1673 à 1679. Quebec: Cramoisy, 1860.
Source: Library and Archives Canada

mage: Title page of Fraser's journal of his 1808 voyage

Title page of Fraser's journal of his 1808 voyage

© Public Domain
Fraser, Simon. Journal of a Voyage From the Rocky Mountains to the Pacific Ocean Performed in the Year 1808. Toronto: Metropolitan Toronto City Library, [1967].
Source: Library and Archives Canada

Image: Title page of Fraser's journal of his 1808 voyage

Title page of Tyrrell's publication of Thompson's narrative

© The Champlain Society
Reproduced with the permission of The Champlain Society
Tyrrell, J. B., ed. A Brief Narrative of the Journeys of David Thompson in North-Western America. Toronto: The Copp, Clark Co., 1888.
Source: Library and Archives Canada

Image: Title page of Cook's account of his voyage to the Pacific Ocean

Title page of Cook's account of his voyage to the Pacific Ocean

© Public Domain
Cook, James. A Voyage to the Pacific Ocean Undertaken by the Command of His Majesty for Making Discoveries in the Northern Hemisphere to Determine the Position and Extent of the West Side of North America; Its Distance From Asia; And the Practicability of a Northern Passage to Europe. London: W.A. Strahan, 1784.
Source: Library and Archives Canada

Image: Title page of Vancouver's account of his 1790-1795 voyage

Title page of Vancouver's account of his 1790-1795 voyage

© Public Domain
Vancouver, George. A Voyage of Discovery to the North Pacific Ocean [...…] in Which the Coast of North-West America Has Been Carefully Examined and Accurately Surveyed [...…] and Performed in the Years 1790, 1791, 1792, 1793, 1794, and 1795 [...…]. London: G.G. and J. Robinson, and J. Edwards, 1798.
Source: Library and Archives Canada

Image: Title page of Lisiansky's account of his 1803-1806 voyage

Title page of Lisiansky's account of his 1803-1806 voyage

© Public Domain
Lisiansky, Urey. A Voyage Round the World in the Years, 1803, 1804, 1805, and 1806, Performed by Order of His Imperial Majesty Alexander the First, Emperor of Russia, in the Ship Neva. London: Printed for John Booth, and Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme & Brown, by S. Hamilton, Weybridge, Surrey, 1814.
Source: Library and Archives Canada

Image: Title page of Parry's account of his voyages

Title page of Parry's account of his voyages

© Public Domain
Parry, W.E. Three Voyages for the Discovery of a Northwest Passage From the Atlantic to the Pacific and Narrative of an Attempt to Reach the North Pole. Vol. 1. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1840.
Source: Library and Archives Canada

Image: Title page of Franklin's account of his second voyage

Title page of Franklin's account of his second voyage

© Public Domain
Franklin, Sir John. Narrative of a Second Expedition to the Shores of the Polar Sea, in the Years 1825, 1826 and 1827. Philadelphia: Carey, Lea, and Carey, 1828.
Source: Library and Archives Canada

Image: Page from Franklin's account of his 1819-1821 voyage

Title page of Franklin's account of his 1819-1821 voyage

© Public Domain
Franklin, Sir John. Narrative of a Journey to the Shores of the Polar Sea in the Years 1819, 20, 21, and 22 […]. London: J. Murray, 1823.
Source: Library and Archives Canada

Image: Ancient snow-goggles used to prevent snow blindness

Ancient snow-goggles used to prevent snow blindness

Prehistoric Inuit Snow-Goggles, circa 1200
© Canadian Museum of History
Artifact ASC IX-C-2846, Photo S89-1832
Source: Canadian Museum of History

Image: Title page of McClure's account of his 1850-1854 voyage

Title page of McClure's account of his 1850-1854 voyage

© Public Domain
McClure, Robert. The Discovery of the North-West Passage by H.M.S. "Investigator," Capt. R. M'Clure, 1850, 1851, 1852, 1853, 1854. 2nd ed. London: Longman, Brown, Green, Longman & Roberts, 1857.
Source: Library and Archives Canada

Image: Title page of Hind's account of his 1857 and 1858 voyages

Title page of Hind's account of his 1857 and 1858 voyages

© Public Domain
Hind, Henry Youle. Narrative of the Canadian Red River Exploring Expedition of 1857, and of the Assiniboine and Saskatchewan Exploring Expedition of 1858. Vol. 1. London: Longman, Brown, Green, Longman & Roberts, 1860.
Source: Library and Archives Canada

Image: Title page of Palliser's account of his voyage

Title page of Palliser's account of his voyage

© Public Domain
Palliser, John. Exploration - British North America: Further Papers Relative to the Exploration by the Expedition Under Captain Palliser of That Portion of British North America Which Lies Between the Northern Branch of the River Saskatchewan and the Frontier of the United States and Between the Red River and the Rocky Mountains and Thence to the Pacific Ocean. London: Printed by G.E. Eyre and W. Spottiswoode for Her Majesty's Stationery Office, 1860.
Source: Library and Archives Canada

Image: Title page of Bernier's account of his voyages

Title page of Bernier's account of his voyages

© Public Domain
Bernier, J.E. Master Mariner and Arctic Explorer: A Narrative of Sixty Years at Sea From the Logs and Yarns of Captain J. E. Bernier. Ottawa: Printed by Le Droit, 1939.
Source: Library and Archives Canada

Re-creation of Norse sod home

Sod house similar to those used by the Norse in Vinland

© Public Domain
Credit: Photo courtesy of Parks Canada/H01-11-01-15 (05)
Source: Parks Canada

Image: Viking ship portrayed on Bayeux tapestry

Viking ship portrayed on Bayeux tapestry

© Public Domain
Credit: Library and Archives Canada/C-021386
Source: Library and Archives Canada

Image: Lapstrake boat

Lapstrake boat

© Library and Archives Canada
Source: Library and Archives Canada

Map: Fishing grounds around Newfoundland, 1693

Map of the fishing grounds around Newfoundland, 1693

© Public Domain
Credit: Library and Archives Canada / C-015607
Source: Library and Archives Canada

Image: Catching, curing and drying cod in the early 18th century

Catching, curing and drying cod in the early 18th century

© Public Domain
Credit: Library and Archives Canada / C-003686
Source: Library and Archives Canada

Drawing: John Cabot's ship

Replica of John Cabot's ship

© Don Lane, Photographer/Davis Engineering & Associates Limited
Source: Davis Engineering & Associates Limited

Map illustration: Wright's "World Map" of 1598

Wright's World Map of 1598, reproduced from an 1880 facsimile

© Public Domain
Credit: Library and Archives Canada / NMC 0210063
Source: Library and Archives Canada

Image: Plan of the harbour and port of Plaisance, before 1692

Plan of the harbour and port of Plaisance, before 1692

© Public Domain
Credit: Library and Archives Canada / C-056934
Source: Library and Archives Canada

Image: Title page of the French translation of Lind's "Treatise on the Scurvy"

Title page of the French translation of Lind's Treatise on the Scurvy

© Public Domain
Lind, James. Traité du scorbut: divisé en trois parties: contenant des recherches sur la nature, les causes & la curation de cette maladie[…]. Paris: Ganeau, 1756.
Source: Library and Archives Canada

Image: Title pages of some accounts of voyages that searched for the Northwest Passage

Accounts of some of the voyages that searched for the Northwest Passage

© Public Domain
[Top] Vancouver, George. A Voyage of Discovery to the North Pacific Ocean […] in Which the Coast of North-West America Has Been Carefully Examined and Accurately Surveyed […] and Performed in the Years 1790, 1791, 1792, 1793, 1794, and 1795 […]. London: G.G. and J. Robinson, and J. Edwards, 1798.
[Middle] Champlain, Samuel de. Les Voyages de sieur de Champlain, Xaintongeois, capitaine ordinaire pour le Roy en la marine, depuis l'année 1608 jusques en 1612. Paris: Jean Berjon, 1613.
[Bottom] Ross, Sir James Clark. Narrative of a Second Voyage in Search of North-West Passage, and of a Residence in the Arctic Regions During the Years, 1829, 1830, 1831, 1832, 1833. Paris: A. and W. Galignani, 1835.
Source: Library and Archives Canada

Artifact: Pitcher recovered from the "San Juan"

Pitcher recovered from the San Juan

© J. Tuck
Reproduced with the permission of J. A. Tuck, Memorial University of Newfoundland
Source: Newfoundland and Labrador Heritage

Image: Voyageur boat and Chippewa canoe

Voyageur boat and Chippewa canoe

© Public Domain
Credit: Library and Archives Canada/C-010645
Source: Library and Archives Canada

Drawing: Examples of beaver-fur hats

Examples of beaver-fur hats

© Public Domain
Castorologia, Or, The History and Traditions of the Canadian Beaver: An Exhaustive Monograph…; Horace T. Martin. Montreal; London: W. Drysdale; E. Stanford, 1892.
Source: Library and Archives Canada

Inset from a map: Beavers building a dam

Beavers building a dam

© Public Domain
Credit: Library and Archives Canada / C-016758
Source: Library and Archives Canada

Photograph: Hudson's Bay Company job posting

Hudson's Bay Company job posting

© Public Domain
Credit: Library and Archives Canada/C-125856
Source: Library and Archives Canada

Portrait: Prince Rupert

Prince Rupert

© Public Domain
Credit: Library and Archives Canada / C-027585
Source: Library and Archives Canada

Map: Sections of the Saskatchewan River near Cumberland House, 1819

Sections of the Saskatchewan River near Cumberland House, 1819

© Public Domain
Credit: Library and Archives Canada /C-145848/C-141382/C-145461.
Acquired with the assistance of Hoechst and Celanese Canada with a grant from the Department of Canadian Heritage under the Cultural Property Export and Import Act.
Source: Library and Archives Canada

Image: A fur trade scene

A fur trade scene

© Public Domain
Credit: Library and Archives Canada / C-007300
Source: Library and Archives Canada

Portrait: Simon McTavish, a partner in the NWC

Simon McTavish, 1750-1804

Portrait by unknown artist no. 108
© Public Domain
Credit: Library and Archives Canada / C-000164
Source: Library and Archives Canada

Image: The "Discovery" on the rocks in Queen Charlotte's Sound

The Discovery on the rocks in Queen Charlotte's Sound

© Public Domain
A Voyage of Discovery to the North Pacific, and Round the World...; George Vancouver. A new ed., with corrections ... London: Printed for John Stockdale, 1801
Source: Library and Archives Canada

Painting: View of Vancouver Island

View of Vancouver Island

© Public Domain
Credit : Library and Archives Canada, Acc. No. 1981-55-75 Bushnell Collection C-114482
Source: Library and Archives Canada

Image: Relics found with bodies of Franklin's crew

Relics found with bodies of Franklin's crew

© Public Domain
Illustrated London News, Oct. 15, 1859, p. 367
Source: Library and Archives Canada

Image: The "Victory," finally stopped by the ice

The Victory, finally stopped by the ice

© Public Domain
Ross, John, Sir. Narrative of a Second Voyage in Search of North-West Passage, and of a Residence in the Arctic Regions During the Years 1829, 1830, 1831, 1832, 1833. London: A.W. Webster, 1835.
Source: Library and Archives Canada

Image: HMS "Terror" thrown up by ice

HMS Terror thrown up by ice

© Public Domain
Credit: Library and Archives Canada / C-029929
Source: Library and Archives Canada

Amundsen's ship, the "Gjöa"

Amundsen's ship, the Gjöa

© Public Domain
Roald Amundsen's The North West Passage: Being a Record of a Voayage of Exploration of the ship Gjöa, 1903-1907; Roald Amundsen. New York: Dutton, 1908.
Source: Library and Archives Canada

Photograph: Captain Bernier and Nu-Kood-Lah on board the "Arctic"

Captain Joseph-Elzéar Bernier and Nu-Kood-lah on board the Arctic

© Public Domain
Credit: Library and Archives Canada, Indian and Northern Affairs Canada Collection / C-068629
Source: Library and Archives Canada

Photograph: The RCMP vessel "St. Roch" in the ice

The RCMP vessel St. Roch in the ice

© Public Domain
Credit: Library and Archives Canada / PA-176014
Source: Library and Archives Canada

Image: First communication with the Native people of St. Regents Bay, showing Englishmen poorly dressed for the Arctic conditions

First communication with the Native people of St. Regents Bay

© Public Domain
Credit: Library and Archives Canada / C-025238
Source: Library and Archives Canada

Inset from a map: “Universalis Cosmographis,” by Waldseemüller, [1507]

Universalis Cosmographis (inset), by Waldseemüller, [1507]

© Public Domain
Credit: Library and Archives Canada / NMC19268
Source: Library and Archives Canada

Map: "Nova et Aucta Orbis Terrae Descriptio ad usum Navigantium…," by Gerard Mercator, 1569

Nova et Aucta Orbis Terrae Descriptio ad usum Navigantium…, by Gerard Mercator, 1569

© Public Domain
Credit: Library and Archives Canada / NMC 17080
Source: Library and Archives Canada

Map: "Nova et Aucta Orbis Terrae Descriptio ad usum Navigantium…," by Gerard Mercator, 1569

Nova et Aucta Orbis Terrae Descriptio ad usum Navigantium…, by Gerard Mercator, 1569

© Public Domain
Credit: Library and Archives Canada / NMC 17080
Source: Library and Archives Canada

Map: ["Port Royal"], 1613, by Samuel de Champlain

[Port Royal] by Champlain, 1613

© Public Domain
Champlain, Samuel de. Les Voyages de sieur de Champlain, Xaintongeois, capitaine ordinaire pour le Roy en la marine, depuis l'année 1608 jusques en 1612. Paris: Jean Berjon, 1613.
Source: Library and Archives Canada, AMICUS 4700723

Map: ["Quebec"], 1613, by Samuel de Champlain

[Quebec], 1613, by Samuel de Champlain

© Public Domain
Champlain, Samuel de. Les Voyages de sieur de Champlain, Xaintongeois, capitaine ordinaire pour le Roy en la marine, depuis l'année 1608 jusques en 1612. Paris: Jean Berjon, 1613.
Source: Library and Archives Canada, AMICUS 4700723

Artifact: 17th century ceramic bowl found at Ferryland, Newfoundland

17th-century ceramic bowl found at Ferryland, Newfoundland

© J. A. Tuck, Memorial University of Newfoundland
Reproduced with the permission of J. Tuck
Source: Newfoundland and Labrador Heritage

Map: "Carte geographique de la Nouvelle France…," by Samuel de Champlain, 1612

Carte geographique de la Nouvelle France…, de Samuel de Champlain, 1612

© Public Domain
Champlain, Samuel de. Les Voyages de sieur de Champlain, Xaintongeois, capitaine ordinaire pour le Roy en la marine, depuis l'année 1608 jusques en 1612. Paris, Jean Berjon, 1613.
Source: Library and Archives Canada, AMICUS 4700723

Map: "Lac Superieur…," by the Jesuits Claude Dablon and Claude Allouez, [1672]

Lac Superieur…, by the Jesuits Claude Dablon and Claude Allouez, [1672]

© Public Domain
Credit: Library and Archives Canada / NMC6407
Source: Library and Archives Canada

Map: "Carte du Canada ou de la Nouvelle France," 1703, by Guillaume Delisle

Carte du Canada ou de la Nouvelle France, 1703, by Guillaume Delisle

© Public Domain
Credit: Library and Archives Canada / NMC11897
Source: Library and Archives Canada

Map: "Mappe monde géo-hydrographique…,"  by Pierre Mortier, [1700]

Mappe monde geo-hydrographique…, by Pierre Mortier, [1700]

© Public Domain
Credit: Library and Archives Canada / NMC21098
Source: Library and Archives Canada

Map: "The Chart of the Coast Where a North West Passage Was Attempted…," by Henry Ellis, 1748

Chart of the Coast Where a North West Passage Was Attempted…, by Henry Ellis, 1748

© Public Domain
A Voyage to Hudson's Bay, by the Dobbs Galley and California, in the years 1746 and 1747…London, H. Whitridge, 1748.
Credit: Library and Archives Canada / C-148345
Source: Library and Archives Canada

Map: "A Map Exhibiting Mr. Hearnes Tracks in His Two Journies … 1770, 1771, & 1772," by Samuel Hearne, 1795

A Map Exhibiting Mr. Hearnes Tracks in His Two Journies […] 1770, 1771, & 1772, by Samuel Hearne, 1795

© Public Domain
Credit: Library and Archives Canada / NMC17611
Source: Library and Archives Canada

Section of a map: from "A Map of the North West Parts of America...," by Alexander Henry, [1775-1776]

(Section 2) "A Map of the North West Parts of America ...," by Alexander Henry, [1775-1776]

© Public Domain
Credit: Library and Archives Canada / NMC6011
Source: Library and Archives Canada

Section of a map: from "A Map of the North West Parts of America...," by Alexander Henry, [1775-1776]

(Section 3) "A Map of the North West Parts of America ...," by Alexander Henry, [1775-1776]

© Public Domain
Credit: Library and Archives Canada / NMC6011
Source: Library and Archives Canada

Section of a map: from "A Map of the North West Parts of America...," by Alexander Henry, [1775-1776]

(Section 4) "A Map of the North West Parts of America ...," by Alexander Henry, [1775-1776]

© Public Domain
Credit: Library and Archives Canada / NMC6011
Source: Library and Archives Canada

Section of a map: from "A Map of the North West Parts of America...," by Alexander Henry, [1775-1776]

(Section 5) "A Map of the North West Parts of America ...," by Alexander Henry, [1775-1776]

© Public Domain
Credit: Library and Archives Canada / NMC6011
Source: Library and Archives Canada

Map: "Copy of a Map Presented to Congress...," by Peter Pond, 1785

"Copy of a Map Presented to Congress...," by Peter Pond, 1785

© Public Domain
Credit: Library and Archives Canada / NMC8433
Source: Library and Archives Canada

Map: "A Map of America Between Latitude 40 and 70 Degrees North…," by Mackenzie, [1801]

A Map of America between Latitude 40 and 70 Degrees North… by Alexander Mackenzie, 1801

© Public Domain
Mackenzie, Alexander, Sir. Voyages from Montreal… to the Frozen and Pacific Oceans, in the Years 1789 and 1793. London: R. Noble, 1801.
Credit: Library and Archives Canada / Alexander E. MacDonald Canadiana Collection # 574 / NMC108621
Source: Library and Archives Canada

Section of map: from David Thompson's ["Discovery and Survey of the Oregon Territory to the Pacific Ocean…,"] 1813-1814

Section 1 of David Thompson's "This Map Made for The North West Company in 1813 and 1814 [...] Discovery and Survey of the Oregon Territory to the Pacific Ocean…"

© The Champlain Society
Reproduced with the permission of The Champlain Society.
Tyrell, J. B., ed. David Thompson's Narrative of His Explorations in Western America, 1784-1812. Toronto: The Champlain Society, 1916.
Source: Library and Archives Canada

Section of map: from David Thompson's ["Discovery and Survey of the Oregon Territory to the Pacific Ocean…,"] 1813-1814

Section 2 of David Thompson's "This Map Made for The North West Company in 1813 and 1814 [...] Discovery and Survey of the Oregon Territory to the Pacific Ocean…"

© The Champlain Society
Reproduced with the permission of The Champlain Society.
Tyrell, J. B., ed. David Thompson's Narrative of His Explorations in Western America, 1784-1812. Toronto: The Champlain Society, 1916.
Source: Library and Archives Canada

Map: "Carte des nouvelles découvertes du Nord...," by Philippe Buache, 1754

Carte des nouvelles découvertes du Nord…, by Philippe Buache, 1752

© Public Domain
Credit: Library and Archives Canada / Alexander E. MacDonald Canadiana Collection # 562 NMC21056
Source: Library and Archives Canada

Map: "Nouvelle carte des decouvertes faites par des vaisseaux Russiens…," by Gerhard Müller, 1758

Nouvelle carte des decouvertes faites par des vaisseaux Russiens…, by Gerhard Müller, 1758

© Public Domain
Credit: Library and Archives Canada / NMC6914
Source: Library and Archives Canada

Map: "Chart of the North West Coast of America and the North East Coast of Asia, 1778 & 1779," by Captain James Cook

Chart of the North West Coast of America and the North East Coast of Asia, 1778 & 1779, by Captain James Cook

© Public Domain
Source: Library and Archives Canada / C-148345

Map: "A Chart Shewing Part of the Coast of N.W. America...," by George Vancouver, 1798-1801

French copy of A Chart Shewing Part of the Coast of N.W. America ..., by George Vancouver, 1798-1801

© Public Domain
Credit: Library and Archives Canada / NMC018955
Source: Library and Archives Canada

Map: "Map of the Arctic Regions," by John Barrow, 1818

Map of the Arctic Regions by John Barrow, 1818

© Public Domain
Barrow, John, Sir. A Chronological History of Voyages into the Arctic Regions: Undertaken Chiefly for the Purpose of Discovering a North-East, North-West, or Polar Passage Between the Atlantic and Pacific […]. London: J. Murray, 1818.
Source: Library and Archives Canada

Map: "Eskimaux Chart No.1 Drawn by Iligliuk at Winter Island, 1822," by Iligliuk

Eskimaux Chart No.1 Drawn by Iligliuk at Winter Island, 1822, by Iligliuk

© Public Domain
Ross, John, Sir. Narrative of a Second Voyage in Search of North-West Passage and of a Residence in the Arctic Regions During the Years 1829, 1830, 1831, 1832, 1833. London: A.W. Webster, 1835.
Source: Library and Archives Canada

Map: "Map of the Countries Round the North Pole," by Aaron Arrowsmith, 1896

Map of the Countries Round the North Pole, by Aaron Arrowsmith, 1896

© Public Domain
Credit: Library and Archives Canada / NMC 008632
Source: Library and Archives Canada

Map: "Map of the North West Part of Canada's Indian Territories and Hudson Bay", by Thomas Devine, 1857

Map of the North West Part of Canada's Indian Territories and Hudson Bay, by Thomas Devine, 1857

© Public Domain
Credit: Library and Archives Canada / NMC 049008
Source: Library and Archives Canada

Map: "Distribution of Population in Northern Canada, 1961," 1974

Distribution of Population in Northern Canada, 1961, 1974

© CDG Books Canada Inc.
Reproduced with the permission of CDG Books Canada Inc.
The National Atlas of Canada. Fourth edition. Toronto: Macmillan Company of Canada, 1974.
Source: Library and Archives Canada

Map: "Canada's Territorial Divisions," 1915

Canada's Territorial Divisions, 1915

© Crown / Department of the Interior Canada
Atlas of Canada. Revised and enlarged edition, prepared under the direction of J.E. Chalifour, Chief Geographer. [Ottawa]: Department of the Interior Canada, 1915.
Source: Library and Archives Canada

Photograph: A 17th-century astrolabe found near Cobden, Ontario

A 17th-century astrolabe found near Cobden, Ontario

© Canadian Museum of History
Artifact 989.56.1, Photo S90-640
Source: Canadian Museum of History

Image: The mariner's compass

A mariner's compass

© Public Domain
Davis, John. The Seaman's Secrets. London: Thomas Dawson, 1607.
Source: Library and Archives Canada

Image: The Davis quadrant, or backstaff

The Davis quadrant, or backstaff

© Public Domain
Davis, John. The Voyages and Works of John Davis, the navigator. London: Printed for the Hakluyt Society, 1880.
Source: Library and Archives Canada

Image: The "chip log" or "log and line" used by Champlain

The "chip log" or "log and line" used by Champlain

© Public Domain
Champlain, Samuel de. Les Voyages de la Nouvelle France occidentale, dicte Canada: faite par le Sr. De Champlain, Xainctongeois, pour le Roy en la Marine du Ponant. Paris: Louis Sevestre, 1632.
Source: Library and Archives Canada

Image: Observing through a sextant

Observing through a sextant

© Public Domain
Credit: Library and Archives Canada / C-028283
Source: Library and Archives Canada

Image: Title page of Hennepin's account

Title page of Hennepin's account

© Public Domain
Hennepin, Louis. A New Discovery of a Vast Country in America, Extending Above Four Thousand Miles Between New France & New Mexico: With a Description of the Great Lakes […]. London: H. Bonwicke, 1699.
Source: Library and Archives Canada

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